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作者(中):陳厚文
作者(英):Chen, Hou-Wen
論文名稱(中):蘇聯「職官名錄」制度之研究
指導教授(中):趙春山
指導教授(英):Chao, Chun-Shan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:俄羅斯研究所
出版年:102
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:蘇聯職官名錄幹部政策
英文關鍵詞:SovietNomenklaturaCadre policy
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本論文主要在探討蘇聯「職官名錄」制度的形成、運作和廢止。本論文共分為五章:
第一章為導論,敘述本論文之研究動機、研究目的、研究架構、研究途徑。第二章探討「職官名錄」制度的形成,首先論述形成的背景因素,次就形成原因和過程加以探究。第三章剖析「職官名錄」制度的運作,首先就「職官名錄」的範疇加以敘述,接著以幹部甄選和訓練作為探討重點;此外,本章亦就赫魯雪夫和布里茲涅夫時期的幹部政策做了解,以充分掌握蘇聯人事制度的演變。第四章論及「職官名錄」制度的廢止,先由「職官名錄」制度的影響著墨,檢視此制度對蘇聯所造成的影響,接著以戈巴契夫的幹部改革政策為主軸,探究「職官名錄」的廢止。第五章為結論。
在研究的過程中,筆者認為蘇聯政治體系的運作除了以極權統治為基礎外,各個領導者透過「職官名錄」來控制人事的任命工作,亦是鞏固權力的重要工具之一。戈巴契夫廢止「職官名錄」雖然有助於消弭布里茲涅夫時期領導階層人員老化的現象,卻也間接的導致蘇聯整個人事制度的改變,而這些問題便成為俄羅斯時期葉爾欽的重要施政問題之一。

第一章 導論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究架構 3
第三節 研究途徑 4
第二章 「職官名錄」制度的形成 7
第一節 「職官名錄」制度形成的背景 7
第二節 「職官名錄」制度形成的原因 30
第三節 「職官名錄」制度形成的過程 34
第三章 「職官名錄」制度的運作 43
第一節 「職官名錄」的範疇 44
第二節 「職官名錄」制度的運作方式 57
第三節 赫魯雪夫時期 69
第四節 布里茲涅夫時期 77
第四章 「職官名錄」制度的廢止 85
第一節 「職官名錄」制度對蘇聯的影響 86
第二節 戈巴契夫的新幹部改革 94
第五章 結論 107
附錄 113
參考書目 119
The theme of this thesis is to probe into the establishment, exercise, and abolishment of the nomenklatura system in the USSR. There are five Chapters in the thesis.
Chapter One is instruction to present the motive, purpose, framework and methods of the study. Chapter Two is concerned with the establishment of the nomenklatura system, which illustrates the background of power shifts and analyzes the process and factors in this period of time. Chapter Three portrays the exercise of the nomenklatura system, which discusses the category and delves the cadre recruitment and discipline. Furthermore, it provides a general view on the cadre policy during the Khrushchev and Brezhnev generations, which contains details about the changes in the Soviet personnel administration. Chapter Four discusses the abolishment of the nomenklatura system, with the focus on its impact to the country. Subsequently, there is an issue discussing the mutual relationship between the cadre policy and the abolishment of the nomenklatura system under Gorbachev. Chapter Five is conclusion of the thesis.
In the process of study, some general points should be noted. Soviet leader’s approaches to control personnel appointments through the nomenklatura system are obviously understood, since those approaches are one of important instruments to consolidate their power. Although the abolishment of the nomenklatura system under Gorbachev helps to prevent the ruling classes from aging in the Brezhnev generation, it indirectly results in the shifts in the whole Soviet personnel management system.
一、中文書籍
尹慶耀,蘇維埃帝國的消亡(台北:五南圖書出版公司,民國八十三年)。
尹慶耀等著,蘇聯(台北:國立政治大學國際關係研究中心,民國七十二年四月)。
王正泉主編,從列寧到戈爾巴喬夫-蘇聯政治體制的演變(北京:中國人民大學出版社,一九八九年五月)。
王福春,毀譽參半---赫魯雪夫(北京:學苑出版社,一九九七年一月)。
戈爾巴喬夫言論選集(北京:人民出版社,一九八七年三月)。
戈爾巴喬夫關於改革的講話(北京:人民出版社,一九八七年三月)。
仝志敏,社會主義國家幹部管理體制改革(北京:光明日報出版社,一九八八年七月)。
史達林欽定,聯共(布)黨史簡明教程,中共譯本(北京:人民出版社,一九七五年)。
共產黨原始資料選集(台北:中華民國國際關係研究所,國立政治大學東亞研究所,民國五十八年十月)。
列寧選集(北京;人民出版社,一九七二年)。
列寧全集(北京:人民出版社,一九五九年)。
李忠杰、徐耀新、魏力,社會主義改革史(北京:春秋出版社,一九八八年二月)。
李邁先,俄國史(台北:正中書局,民國七十八年十月)。
沈志華等編著,蘇聯共產黨九十三年-1989年至1991年蘇共歷史大事實錄(北京:當代中國出版社,一九九三年五月)。
畢英賢譯,蘇聯,增修版(台北:國立政治大學國際關係研究中心,民國七十八年十二月)。
唐治寧譯,「黨的改革與幹部政策」,匪俄問題譯叢(十七)(台北:國防部總政治作戰部,民國七十七年十月)。
郭壽華著,蘇俄通鑑(台北:大亞洲出版社,民國六○年)。
葉自成,俄羅斯政府與政治(台北:揚智文化,民國八十六年)。
趙春山,蘇聯領導權力的轉移-從列寧到戈巴契夫(台北:桂冠圖書公司,民國七十九年四月)。
趙長峰主編,蘇聯解體與東歐巨變(濟南:山東社會科學院蘇聯東歐研究課題組,一九九二年四月)。
關素質,蘇俄黨政演變之評析,上冊(台北:黎明文化事業公司,民國七十二年八月)。
蘇梅鳳、卓松呈主編,中國公務員制度(湖北:華中理工大學出版社,一九八八年四月)。
蘇聯大百科全書,第十三卷,劉丕坤譯本(北京:人民出版社,一九五四年)。
二、中文期刊
尹慶耀,「從蘇共第二十七次大會看蘇聯前途」,問題與研究,第二十五卷,第七期,民國七十五年四月。
尹慶耀,「戈巴契夫執政後的蘇聯」,問題與研究,第二十六卷,第十一期,民國七十六年八月。
李巧石、王台珍譯,黨綱新版本(由蘇共廿七大通過)。
李巧石譯,「戈巴契夫在蘇共第十九次黨代表會議報告摘要」,問題與研究,第廿七卷,第十二期,民國七十七年九月。
畢英賢,「蘇共『二十七大』對上層權力結構的調整」,問題與研究,第二十五卷,第七期,民國七十五年四月。
畢英賢,「蘇聯的經濟改革與民主化」,問題與研究,第二十六卷,第六期,民國七十六年三月。
陳之驥,「勃列日涅夫時期蘇聯的主要問題和歷史教訓」,東歐中亞研究,第六期,一九九八年。
塔其,「蘇聯動態述評」,問題與研究,第廿九卷,第二期,民國七十八年十一月。
趙威,「蘇共中央委員會書記處」,共黨問題研究,第十一卷,第四期,民國七十四年四月。
三、英文書籍
Armstrong, John A., Ideology, Politics and Government in the Soviet Union revised edition ( New York : Praeger, 1967 )
Barghoorn, Frederick C., Politics in the USSR ( Boston : Little Brown, 1986 )
Belloni, Frank P. & Beller, Dennis C. eds., Faction Politics : Political Parties and Factionalism in Comparative Perspective ( California : ABC-Clio Inc., 1978 )
Bertsch, Gary K., Power and Policy in Communist System ( New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1978 )
Bialer, Seweryn & Gustafson, Thane eds., Russian at the Crossroads : The 26th Congress of the CPSU ( London : Allen & Unwin, 1982 )
Braham, Randolph L. ed., Soviet Politics and Government ( New York : Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1965 )
Calvert, Peter, Politics, Power and Revolution : A Comparative Analysis of Contemporary Government ( New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1983 )
Carr, E. H., The Bolshevik Revolution 1917-23, Vol. II, ( London : The Macmillan Press, 1951 )
Clark, Dymphna, The Soviet Politburo ( New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1982 )
Clark, William A., Crime and Punishment in Soviet Officialdom : Combating Corruption in the Political Elite, 1965-1990 ( New York : M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1993 )
Conquest, Robert, Power and Policy in the USSR : the Study of Soviet Dynastics ( New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1961 )
Dmytryshyn, Basil ed., Imperial Russia : A Source Book, 1700-1917 3rd edition ( Florida : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1990 )
Fainsod, Merle, How Russia Is Ruled, revised edition ( Cambridge : Harvard University, 1967 )
Fainsod, Merle, Smolensk under Soviet Rule ( Cambridge : Harvard University, 1958 )
Goldman, Marshall I., USSR in Crisis ( New York : W. W. Norton, 1983 )
Green, Barbara B., The Dynamics of Russian Politics ( New York : Praeger Publishers, 1994 )
Harasymiw, Bohdan, Political Elite Recruitment in the Soviet Union ( New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1984 )
Harding, Neil ed., The State in Socialist Society ( London : The Macmillan Press, 1984 )
Hill, Ronald J. & Frank, Peter, The Soviet Communist Party ( London : Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1981 )
Hoffman, Erik P. & Laird, Robbin F. eds., The Soviet Polity in the Modern Era ( New York : Aldine Publishing Company, 1984 )
Hough, Jerry, The Soviet Prefects : The Local Party Organs in Industrial Decision-making ( Cambridge : Harvard University Press 1969 )
Hough, Jerry & Fainsod, Merle, How the Soviet Union Is Governed ( Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 1979 )
Kelley, Donald R., The Politics of Developed of Socialism : The Soviet Union as a Post-Industrial State ( New York : Greenwood Press, 1986 )
Kelley, Donald R. ed., Soviet Politics in the Brezhnev Era ( New York : Praeger, 1980 )
Lane, David ed., Elites and Political Power in the USSR ( Aldershot : Edward Elgar, 1988 )
Linden, Carl A., The Soviet Party-State : The Politics of Ideocratic Despotism ( New York : Praeger, 1983 )
Miller, F. & Feher, F. eds., Khrushchev and the Communist World ( New Jersey : Barnes & Noble Books, 1984 )
McCauley, Martin, The Soviet Union 1917-1991, 2nd edition ( New York : Addison Wesley Longman Inc., 1996 )
McCauley, Martin ed., Khrushchev and Khrushchevism, ( London : Macmillan, 1987 )
Moore, Barrington Jr., Soviet Politics-The Dilemma of Power ( Cambridge : Harvard University, 1950 )
Murphy, Paul J., Brezhnev : Soviet Politician ( Jefferson, N. C., McFarland & Co., 1981 )
Nogee, Joseph L. ed., Soviet Politics : Russia after Brezhnev ( New York : Praeger, 1985 )
Osborn, Robert Jr., The Evolution of Soviet Politics ( Illinois : Homewood Dorsey Press, 1974 )
Pipes, Richard ed., Soviet Strategy in Europe ( New York : Crane, Russak Company, Inc., 1976 )
Reshetar, John S. Jr., The Soviet Polity : Government and Politics in the USSR, 2nd edition ( New York : Harper & Row Publishers, 1978 )
Rigby, Thomas H., Political Elites in the USSR : Central Leaders and Local Cadres from Lenin to Gorbachev ( Aldershot : Edward Elgar, 1990 )
Rigby, T. H., Communist Party Membership in the USSR, 1917-1967 ( New Jersey : Princeton University Press, 1968 )
Rigby, Thomas H. & Brown ,Archie & Reddaway, Peter eds., Authority, Power and Policy in the USSR ( London : The Macmillan Press, 1978 )
Rigby, Thomas H. & Feher, Ferenc eds., Political Legitimation in Communist States ( London : Macmillan, 1982 )
Rigby, Thomas H. & Harasymiew, Bohdan eds., Leadership Selection and Patron-Client Relations in the USSR and Yugoslavia ( London : Allen & Unwin, 1983 )
Sakwa, Richard, Soviet Politics ( London : Routledge, 1990 )
Schapiro, Leonard, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 2nd edition ( New York : Random House, 1971 )
Scott, Derek J. R., Russian Political Institutions ( New York : Praeger, 1961 )
Smith, Gordon B., Soviet Politics : Continuity and Contradiction ( New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1988 )
Smith, Gordon B., Soviet Politics : Struggling with Change, 2nd edition ( New York : St. Martin’s, 1992 )
Smith, Gordon B. ed., Public Policy and Administration in the Soviet Union ( New York : Praeger, 1980 )
Thompson, Terry L., Ideology and Policy : The Political Use of Doctrine in the USSR ( Boulder, Colo : Westview Press, 1989 )
Treadgold, Donald W., Twentieth Century Russia, 4th edition ( Chicago : Rand McNally College Publishing Company, 1976 )
Voslensky, Michael trans. by Mosbacher, Eric, Nomenklatura : The Soviet Ruling Class ( New York, Doubleday, 1984 )
Weeks, Albert L., The Soviet Nomenklatura-A Comprehensive Roster of Soviet Civilian and Military Officials 2nd edition ( Washington, D. C. : The Washington Institute Press, 1989 )
Wolfe, Bertram D., Khrushchev and Stalin’s Ghost ( Connecticut : Westport, Greenwood Press, Publishers, 1957 )
Zdenek, Mlynar, Can Gorbachev Change the Soviet Union ? ( San Francisco / Oxford : Westview Press, 1990 )
四、英文期刊
Aspaturian, Vernon V., “ The Brezhnev Legacy : Leadership Uncertainty in the Kremlin, ” The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1985.
Blackwell, Robert E. Jr., “ Cadres Policy in the Brezhnev Era, ” Problems of Communism, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1979.
Friedgut, Theodore H., “ Gorbachev and Party Reform, ” ORBIS, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer 1986.
Gaidar, Egor, “ How the Nomenklatura ‘ Privatized ’Its Own Power, ” Russian Politics and Law, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1996.
Gill, Graeme, “ The Soviet Leader Cult : Reflections on the Structure of Leadership in the Soviet Union, ” British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1980.
Hammer, Darrell P., “ The Dilemma of Party Growth, ” Problems of Communism, Vol. 20, No. 4, July-August, 1971.
Hanley, Eric , Yershova, Natasha & Anderson, Richard, “ Russia-Old Wine in a New Bottle? The Circulation and Reproduction of Russia Elite, 1983-1993, ” Theory and Society, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1995.
Harasymiw, Bohdan, “ Nomenklatura : The Soviet Communist Party’s Leadership Recruitment System, ” Canadian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1969.
Hill, Ronald J., “ Party-State Relations and Soviet Political Development, ” British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 10, No.2, 1980.
Hill, Ronald J. & Lowenhardt, John, “ Nomenklatura and Perestroika, ” Government and Opposition, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1991.
Kaplan, Cynthia S., “ Local Party Organization, ” Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol. 21, Spring 1988.
Kryshtanovskaya, Olga V., “ Transformation of the Old Nomenklatura into a New Russian Elite, ” Sociological Research, Vol. 34, No. 6, 1995.
Kryshtanovskaya, Olga V., “ The New Russian Elite, ” Sociological Research, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1995.
Kryshtanovskaya, Olga & White, Stephen, “ From Soviet Nomenklatura to Russian Elite, ” Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 48, No. 5, 1996.
Nemzer, Louis, “ The Kremlin’s Professional Staff : the Apparatus of the CC, CPSU, ” American Political Science Review, No. 1, March 1950.
Nove, Alec, “ Is There a Ruling Class in the USSR ? ” Soviet Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1975.
Nove, Alec, “ The Class Nature of the Soviet Union Revisited, ” Soviet Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1983.
Rigby, Thomas H., “ Early Provincial Cliques and the Rise of Stalin, ” Soviet Studies, Vol. 33, No.1, January 1981.
Rigby, Thomas H., “Staffing USSR Incorporated : The Origins of the Nomenklatura System”, Soviet Studies, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1988.
Rigby, Thomas H., “ The Soviet Regional Leadership : The Brezhnev Generation, ” Slavic Review, Vol. 37, January 1978.
Rigby, Thomas H., “ The Soviet Leadership : Towards a Self-Stabilizing Oligarchy ? ” Soviet Studies, Vol. 22, July 1970.
Rutland, Peter, “ The Research for Stability, Ideology, Discipline, and the Cohesion of the Soviet Elite, ” Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol. 24, March 1991.
Schapiro, Leonard, “ Reflections on the Changing Role of the Party in the Totalitarian Polity, ” Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol. 2, No. 2, April 1969.
Unger, Aryeh L., “ Soviet Communist Party Membership Under Brezhnev : A Comment, ” Soviet Studies, Vol. 29, April, 1977.
Willerton, John P. Jr., “ Clientelism in the Soviet Union : An Initial Examination, ” Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol. 12, Nos. 2 & 3, 1979.
五、俄文書籍和期刊
Gorbachev, Mikhail S., Perestroika i Novoe Myshlenie Dlya Nashei Strany i dlya Vsevo Mira(對我們國家和整個世界的重建及新思維)( Moskva : Izdatelstvo Politicheskoi Literatury, 1987 )
Ivanov, A., “ Nomenklatura Klass, ”(職官名錄階級)Posev, March 1973.
Korzhikhina, T. P. & Figatner,Yu. Yu., “ Sovetskaya Nomenklatura : Stanovlenie, Mekhanizmy Deistviya, ”(蘇聯職官名錄:形成及制度之運作)Voprosy Istorii, July 1993.
Rumyantsev, A. M. ed., Nauchnyi Kommunizm(科學的共產黨)( Moskva : Politi Zdat, 4th edition, 1983 )
Pravda
封面頁
證明書
致謝詞
論文摘要
目錄
第一章 導論
第一節 研究動機與目的
第二節 研究架構
第三節 研究途徑
第二章 「職官名錄」制度的形成
第一節 「職官名錄」制度形成的背景
第二節 「職官名錄」制度形成的原因
第三節 「職官名錄」制度形成的過程
第三章 「職官名錄」制度的運作
第一節 「職官名錄」的範疇
第二節 「職官名錄」制度的運作方式
第三節 赫魯雪夫時期
第四節 布里茲涅夫時期
第四章 「職官名錄」制度的廢止
第一節 「職官名錄」制度對蘇聯的影響
第二節 戈巴契夫的新幹部改革
第五章 結論
附錄
參考書目
 
 
 
 
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