帳號:guest(18.206.168.65)          離開系統
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  

詳目顯示

以作者查詢圖書館館藏以作者查詢臺灣博碩士以作者查詢全國書目勘誤回報
作者(中):葉長城
作者(英):Yeh, Chang Chen
論文名稱(中):誰否決?新興市場金融自由化改革的政治分析:智利、南韓與巴西經驗的比較
指導教授(中):何思因
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:政治學系
出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:314
中文關鍵詞:金融自由化改革否決點否決者政策關鍵行動者政策取向智利南韓巴西
英文關鍵詞:financial liberalization reformveto pointveto playerkey actors in policymakingpolicy orientationChileSouth KoreaBrazil
相關次數:
  • 推薦推薦:0
  • 點閱點閱:481
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:131
  • gshot_favorites title msg收藏:0
本研究探討1970年代末以降,智利、南韓與巴西三個新興市場國家,為何在面臨國際經濟自由化的相同政策挑戰時,會產生不同的短期政策回應。這些政策回應的差異最後更造成三國長期金改路徑的分歧。為解釋此研究問題,本研究整合國際與國內分析層次,就國際政策環境與國內政策過程及其產出兩部份,觀察制度否決點與政策關鍵行動者的互動,在長時間下對三國金融自由化改革造成的影響。
首先,本文根據三國金改在「步伐、範圍與程度」上的差異,建構三種不同長期金改路徑,即:「震盪-全面型改革」(shock-comprehensive reform)、「漸進-部分型改革」(gradual-partial reform)與「延緩-有限型改革」(delayed-limited reform)。這三種長期金改路徑的分歧,主要來自三國短期金改類型(即大幅改革、緩慢改革、無改革與改革倒退)變遷的累積。
其次,經由對三國進行個案導向的比較與貫時研究後,本研究除釐清三國長期金改路徑的演變轉折,也發現三國短期金改類型的變動,主要受到不同時期(1)政策關鍵行動者裡反對勢力否決力量的強弱,與(2)執政聯盟的政策取向係屬國家干預或市場導向,兩項因素組合變化的影響。
智利的個案研究結果顯示,1970-2000年智利的「震盪-全面型」金改,主要奠基於Pinochet軍政府,在1975-1989年成功開啟的大幅改革。1990-2000年,民主協定政府接替執政後,這種務實的新自由主義改革路線,透過憲政制度對威權勢力的保護設計,使民主協定政府因反對勢力否決力量強大,只能選擇繼續延續「Pinochet式」的經濟政策。
南韓的個案研究反映出南韓的「漸進-部份型」金改,主要係源自1980-1997年,執政聯盟內代表大財閥利益的韓國工業聯盟,對全面金融自由化的反對。該因素不僅使執政聯盟長期在國家干預與市場導向立場上反覆拉鋸,更導致南韓短期金改類型持續在大幅改革與大幅倒退間擺盪。1997年,南韓經歷嚴重金融危機衝擊,為原本「進退拉鋸」式的長期金改路徑帶來關鍵轉折的契機。
由於舊執政聯盟的結構,因政黨輪替瓦解,並由金大中總統主導的市場改革派控制,同時反對勢力否決力量轉弱,金大中政府因此能順利推動1998-2000年南韓金融體系的結構改革,最終促成過去「漸進-部份型」的長期金改路徑,出現重大轉變。
巴西的個案研究凸顯巴西的「延緩-有限型」金改,係源於政策取向與反對勢力否決力量兩因素,長期未出現發生大幅改革的條件組合。1961-1979年,反對勢力的否決力量由強轉弱,為推動大幅改革提供良好契機,但執政聯盟的政策取向多數時期卻為國家干預。
1985年以後,市場導向的政策取向逐漸在執政聯盟裡取得主導地位,但反對勢力否決力量反而在恢復民主體制後轉強。巴西推動改革的兩項重要條件未能配合,使其長期金改路徑始終無法脫離改革緩慢與延宕的狀態。迄Cardoso民主政府執政後,新自由主義的改革路線在執政聯盟裡取得主導地位,再加上反對勢力的否決力量相對轉弱,才促成巴西出現少見的大幅改革現象。
The dissertation mainly explains why these three emerging markets, Chile, South Korea and Brazil, while facing the same challenge from the international economic liberalization since the late 1970s, have different short-term policy responses. These differences ultimately create the divergence among these three countries on the long-term financial liberalization reform. This research integrates the domestic and international level of analysis by focusing on two parts, the international policy environment and the domestic policy process and outcome, to observe the interaction between the institutional veto points and the key actors in policymaking and its impact on the financial liberalization reforms among three countries over time.
First, this research constructs three typologies of long-term financial liberalization paths by their different reform “pace”, “scope” and “depth”. They are “shock-comprehensive reform”, “gradual-partial reform”, and “delayed-limited reform.” The divergence of these three long-term financial reforms is mainly accumulated by the change of three countries’ short-term type of reform (large reform, gradual reform, non reform and reform reversal) over time.
Second, this research clarifies the evolution of the long-term financial liberalization paths of three countries by conducting comparative and longitudinal case-studies. It argues that the change of short-term type of reform is mainly influenced by two causes, i.e. the veto power of opponents among key actors in policymaking (weak or strong) and policy orientations of the ruling coalition (market-oriented or state intervention).
The case of Chile shows that the “shock-comprehensive reform paths” during 1970-2000 is mainly based on the successful large financial reform of Pinochet regime from 1975 to 1989. The pro-Pinochet authoritarians checked the change of pragmatic neoliberal reform with the constitutional veto powers after the democratic Concertación government in office and kept Pinochet-style economic policies intact in the end.
In South Korea case, the “gradual-partial reform paths” was from the big conglomerates’ (chaebols) opposition to the complete financial liberalization during 1980-1997. It brought the tug of war of ruling coalition’s policy orientation between market-oriented and state intervention, hence contributed to the oscillation of short-term financial liberalization reform types between large reform and reform reversal in South Korea. In 1997, the Asian financial crisis hit the economy of South Korea severely, and brought the turning point of the change of “gradual-partial reform path” in the past.
The structure of old ruling coalition was collapsed due to the regime change and the takeover of President Kim Dae-jung, the market reform faction. While the veto power of opposition party was getting weaker, Kim Dae-jung administration was able to boost the structural reform of financial system in South Korean during 1998-2000, and ultimately contributed to the major change of “gradual-partial reform path”.
In Brazil, the absence of the combination of policy orientation and veto power of opponents among key actors in policymaking, which may cause the large reform, was the main reason of its “delayed-limited reform”. During 1961-1979, the weakening opponents’ veto power opened the window of opportunity for the large reform, but failed due to the state-intervention policies adopted by the successive ruling coalitions most of time.
After the advent of democratic era in 1985, the market-oriented policy was dominant in various democratic ruling coalitions. However, the strengthening veto power of opponents after the recovery of democratic regime became the obstacle of the actualization of reform policy. The mismatch of two causes which may contribute to the happening of large reform was not changed until Cardoso government in office. The neoliberal policy orientation of President Cardoso’s ruling coalition and the weakening veto power of opponents contributed to the rare large reform in the path of delayed and limited financial liberalization in Brazil.
第一章 緒 論 -------------------------------1
第一節 研究目標與重點-----------------------1
第二節 文獻檢閱----------------------------3
第三節 研究方法與分析架構------------------13

第二章 智利「震盪-全面型」金融改革的開啟與延續(1975-2000年)--30
第一節 影響智利金融-政治發展歷程的國際政經因素---------------30
第二節 智利國內金融-政治過程的制度演變----------------------44
第三節 智利金融自由化改革歷程的關鍵行動者分析----------------70
第四節 本章小結------------------------------------------84

第三章 南韓「漸進-部分型」金融改革的形成與轉變(1980-2003年)-89
第一節 影響南韓金融-政治發展歷程的國際政經因素--------------89
第二節 南韓國內金融-政治過程的制度演變---------------------97
第三節 南韓金融自由化改革歷程的關鍵行動者分析---------------133
第四節 本章小結-----------------------------------------152

第四章 巴西「延緩-有限型」金融改革的形成與展開(1964-2002年)-156
第一節 影響巴西金融-政治發展歷程的國際政經因素-------------156
第二節 巴西國內金融-政治過程的制度演變-------------------166
第三節 巴西金融自由化改革歷程的關鍵行動者分析--------------217
第四節 本章小結----------------------------------------241

第五章 三國綜合比較與結論--------------------------------246
第一節 影響三國金融-政治發展歷程的國際政經因素-------------246
第二節 三國金融自由化改革的制度基礎----------------------248
第三節 政策取向、政策關鍵行動者與三國金融自由化改革的分歧---250
第四節 結 論------------------------------------------274

參考文獻---------------------------------------------288

一、史料
U.S. National Security Council. 1970. “Policy Towards Chile.” Top Secret, National Security Decision Memorandum. NSDM 93, November 9. Presidential Directives. PD01232.

二、專書
(一)中文部份
Clift,Jeremy編,2004,《國際貨幣基金組織是什麼?》,華盛頓:國際貨幣基金組織。
Sáez,Manuel Alcántara著,熊建成、洪惠紋譯,1998,《拉丁美洲政治體制》,臺北市:國立編譯館。
王曉燕編著,2004,《列國志:智利》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
任曉,1995,《韓國經濟發展的政治分析》,上海市:上海人民出版社。
朴昌根,1998,《韓國產業政策》,上海市:上海人民出版社。
江時學,2004,《金融全球化與發展中國家的經濟安全:拉美國家的經驗教訓》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
行政院經濟建設委員會經濟研究處編,1990,《韓國經濟發展與經建計畫》,台北市:行政院經濟建設委員會經濟研究處印。
行政院經濟建設委員會經濟研究處編,1994,《韓國金融制度與政策》,台北市:行政院經濟建設委員會經濟研究處印。
何曼青、馬仁真編著,2004,《世界銀行集團》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
呂銀春與周俊南編著,2004,《列國志:巴西》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
李則芬,1970,《中日關係史》,台北市:台灣中華書局。
李榮謙,1998,《貨幣銀行學》,台北市:智勝文化。
李榮謙與方耀編,《國際金融小辭典》,臺北市:臺灣金融研訓院,2003年。
孫義宣、李榮謙編著,1999,《國際貨幣制度》,台北市:金融研訓中心。
徐中約著,計秋楓等譯,2001,《中國近代史(上冊)》,香港:中文大學出版社。
徐滇慶、于宗先與王金利,2000,《泡沫經濟與金融危機》,北京:中國人民大學出版社。
曹中屏、張璉瑰等編著,2005,《當代韓國史(1945-2000)》,天津:南開大學出版社。
蔡增家,2005,《南韓轉型:政黨輪替與政經體制的轉變(1993-2003)》,台北市:巨流。
顧瑩華,1992,《巴西經濟的發展與危機》,臺北市:財團法人中華經濟研究院。

(二)英文部份
Allende, Salvador. 1973. “The Chilean Road to Socialism.” In The Chilean Road to Socialism: Proceedings of an ODEPLAN-IDS Round Table, March 1972. ed. J. Ann Zammit. Brighton: University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies.
Ames, Barry. 1987. Political Survival: Politicians and Public Policy in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ames, Barry. 2002. The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Amorim Neto, Octavio. 2002. “Presidential Cabinets, Electoral Cycles, and Coalition Discipline in Brazil.” In Legislative Politics in Latin America. ed. Scott Morgenstern. West Nyack, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Amsden, Alice H. 1989. Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press.
Armijo, Leslie Elliott. 1993. “Brazilian Politics and Patterns of Financial Regulation, 1945-1991.” In The Politics of Finance in Developing Countries. eds. Stephan Haggard, Chung H. Lee, and Sylvia Maxfield. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Arraes, María Celina B. 2000. “The Structure of Banking Systems: Case Studies: Brazil.” In Reform of Latin American Banking Systems. eds. E. Aguirre and J. Norton. London: Kluwer Law International.
Arruda, Marcos. 2000. External Debt: Brazil and the International Financial Crisis. London, GBR: Pluto Press.
Averbug, André and Fabio Giambiagi. 2004. “The Brazilian Crisis of 1998-99: Origins and Consequences.” In Brazil and South Korea: Economic Crisis and Restructuring. eds. Edmund Amann and Ha-Joon Chang. London: Institute of Latin American Studies.
Baaklini, Abdo I. 1992. The Brazilian Legislature and Political System. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Bacha, Edmar L. and Pedro S. Malan. 1989. “Brazil’s Debt: from the Miracle to the Fund.” In Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation. ed. Alfred Stepan. New York: Oxford University Press.
Baer, Werner and Claudio Pavia. 1998. “Brazil’s Drifting Economy: Stagnation and Inflation during 1987-1996.” In What kind of Democracy? What kind of Market?: Latin America in the Age of Neoliberalism. eds. Oxhorn, Philip D. and Graciela Ducatenzeiler. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Baer, Werner. 1983. The Brazilian Economy: Growth and Development. 2th. ed. New York: Praeger.
Baer, Werner. 2001. The Brazilian Economy: Growth and Development. 5th ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Baklanoff, Eric N. 1975. Expropriation of U.S. Investments in Cuba, Mexico, and Chile. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Baloyra, Enrique A. 1986. “From Moment to Moment: the Political Transition in Brazil, 1977-1981.” In Political Liberalization in Brazil: Dynamics, Dilemmas, and Future Prospects. ed. Wayne A. Selcher. Colorado: Westview Press.
Barbosa, Fernando de Holanda. 1998. “Economic Development: the Brazilian Experience.” In Development Strategies in East Asia and Latin America. eds. Akio Hosono and Neantro Saavedra-Rivano. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Barros, Robert J. 2002. Constitutionalism and Dictatorship: Pinochet, the Junta, and the 1980 Constitution. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bates, Robert H., Stephan Haggard, and Joan M. Nelson. 1991. “A Critique by Political Scientists.” In Politics and Policy Making in Developing Countries: Perspective on the New Political Economy. ed. Gerald M. Meier. San Francisco: ICS Press.
Bedeski, Robert E. 1994. The Transformation of South Korea: Reform and Reconstitution in the Sixth Republic under Roh Tae Woo, 1987-1992. New York: Routledge.
Blakemore, Harold. 1993. “From the War of the Pacific to 1930.” In Chile Since Independence. ed. Leslie Bethell. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bridges, Brian. 2001. Korea after the Crash: the Politics of Economic Recovery. New York: Routledge.
Caprio, Gerard, Jr.. 1996. “Introduction.” In Financial Reform Theory and Experience, eds. Gerard Caprio, Jr., Izak Atiyas, and James A. Hanson. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Castro, Paulo Rabello de and Marcio Ronci. 1991. “Sixty Years of Populism in Brazil.” In The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America. eds. Rudiger Dornbusch and Sebastian Edwards. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cavalcanti, H.B. 1996. “Brazil at the End of the Century: Presidential Impeachment and Economic Integration in First World Market.” In Globalization, Urbanization, and the State: Selected Studies in Contemporary Latin America. ed. Satya R. Pattnayak. London: University Press of America.
Cho, Soon-Sung. 1982. “American Policy toward Korean Unification, 1945-1980.” In U.S.-Korean Relations, 1882-1982. eds. Tae-Hwan Kwak, et al. Seoul, Korea: Kyungnam University Press.
Chung, Jae-Yong and Richard J. R. Kirkby. 2002. The Political Economy of Development and Environment in Korea. London: Routledge.
Cole, David C. and Yung Chul Park. 1983. Financial Development in Korea, 1945-1978. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Collier, Simon. 1993. “From Independence to the War of the Pacific.” In Chile Since Independence. ed. Leslie Bethell. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cukierman, Alex and Mariano Tommasi. 1998. “Credibility of Policymakers and of Economic Reforms.” In The Political Economy of Reform. eds. Federico Sturzenegger and Mariano Tommasi. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
De la Cuadra, Sergio and Salvador Valdés-Prieto. 1992. “Bank Structure in Chile.” In Banking Structures in Major Countries. ed. George G. Kaufman. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Drake, Paul W. 1978. Socialism and Populism in Chile, 1932-1952. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Drake, Paul W. 1989. The Money Doctor in the Andes: the Kemmerer Missions, 1923-1933. Durham: Duke University Press.
Drake, Paul W. 1994. “Historical Setting.” In Chile: a Country Study, ed. Rex A. Hudson. Washington, D.C.: the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., Chap. 1. <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/cntrystd.cl> (July 6, 2006).
Drake, Paul. 1993. “Chile, 1930-1958.” In Chile Since Independence. ed. Leslie Bethell. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Drazen, Allan. 2000. Political Economy in Macroeconomics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Edwards, Ebastian and Alejandra C. Edwards. 1987. Monetarism and Liberalization: The Chilean Experiment. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Company.
Evans, Peter. 1979. Dependent Development: the Alliance of Multinational State and Local Capital in Brazil. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Fausto, Boris. 1999. A Concise History of Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fields, Carl. 1997. “Strong States and Business Organization in Korea and Taiwan.” In Business and the State in Developing Countries. eds. Sylvia Maxfield and Ben Ross Schneider. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Fishlow, Albert. 1973. “Some Reflections on Post-1964 Brazilian Economic Policy.” In Authoritarian Brazil: Origins, Policies, and Future. ed. Alfred Stepan. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Fishlow, Albert. 1989. “A Tale of Two Presidents: the Political Economy of Crisis Management.” In Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation. ed. Alfred Stepan. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fleischer, David. 1986. “The Brazilian Congress: from Abertura to New Republic.” In Political Liberalization in Brazil: Dynamics, Dilemmas, and Future Prospects. ed. Wayne A. Selcher. Colorado: Westview Press.
Fortin, Carlos. 1985. “The Political Economy of Repressive Monetarism: the State and Capital Accumulation in Post-1973 Chile.” In The State and Capital Accumulation in Latin America, Vol. 1: Brazil, Chile, Mexico. eds. Christian Anglade and Carlos Fortin. London: Macmillan.
Fun, Finsok. 2001. “South Korea: Consolidating Democratic Civilian Control.” In Coercion and Governance: the Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia. ed. Muthiah Alagappa. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Garrett, Geoffrey and Peter Lange. 1996. “Internationalization, Institutions and Political Change.” In Internationalization and Domestic Politics. eds. Robert O. Keohane and Helen V. Milner. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Geddes, Barbara. 1994. Politician’s Dilemma: Building State Capacity in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gil, Federico Guillermo. 1966. The Political System of Chile. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Gilpin, Robert. 1987. The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1987.
Goertzel, Ted G. 1999. Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Reinventing Democracy in Brazil. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Goodman, John B. 1992. Monetary Sovereignty: the Politics of Central Banking in Western Europe. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Gordon, Lincoln. 2001. Brazil’s Second Chance: En Route toward the First World. Washington, DC, USA: Brookings Institution Press.
Haggard, Stephan and Nancy Birdsall. 2000. “The Social Fallout: Safety Nets and Recrafting the Social Contract.” In The Political Economy of the Asian Financial Crisis. ed. Stephan Haggard. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Haggard, Stephan and Steven B. Webb. 1994. “Introduction.” In Voting for Reform: Democracy, Political Liberalization, and Economic Adjustment. eds. Stephan Haggard and Steven B. Webb. New York: Published for the World Bank, Oxford University Press.
Haggard, Stephan and Sylvia Maxfield. 1996. “The Political Economy of Financial Internationalization in the Developing World.” In Internationalization and Domestic Politics. eds. Robert O. Keohane and Helen V. Milner. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Haggard, Stephan, Richard N. Cooper and Chung-in Moon. 1993. “Policy Reform in Korea.” In Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countries. eds. Robert H. Bates and Anne O. Krueger. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.
Haggard, Stephan. 1990. Pathways from the Periphery: the Politics of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Haggard, Stephan. 1994. “Macroeconomic Policy through the First Oil Shock, 1970-1975.” In Macroeconomic Policy and Adjustment in Korea, 1790-1990. eds. Haggard, Stephan, et al. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Institute for International Development and Korean Development Institute.
Harvie, Charles and Hyun-Hoon Lee. 2003. Korea’s Economic Miracle: Fading or Reviving?. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hastings, Laura A. 1993b. “Regulatory Revenge: The Politics of Free-Market Financial Reforms in Chile.” In The Politics of Finance in Developing Countries. eds. Stephan Haggard, Chung H. Lee, and Sylvia Maxfield. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Heakal, Reem. “What Is An Emerging Market Economy?.” Investopedia.com. 30 July 2003. <http://www.investopedia.com/printable.asp?a=/articles/03/073003.asp> (26 May 2006).
Helleiner, Eric. 1994. States and Reemergence of Global Finance: from Bretton Woods to the 1990s. N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Heller, William B., Philip Keefer, and Mathew D. McCubbins. 1998. “Political Structure and Economic Liberalization: Conditions and Cases from the Developing World.” In The Origins of Liberty: Political and Economic Liberalization in the Modern World. eds. Paul W. Drake and Mathew D. McCubbins. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Herrera, Genaro Arriagada and Carol Graham. 1994. “Chile: Sustaining Adjustment during Democratic Transition.” In Voting for Reform: Democracy, Political Liberalization, and Economic Adjustment. eds. Stephan Haggard and Steven B. Webb. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hirschman, Albert O. 1993. Journeys toward Progress: Studies of Economic Policy-Making in Latin America. Boulder: Westview Press.
Hirst, Monica. 1996. “The Foreign Policy of Brazil: from the Democratic Transition to Its Consolidation.” In Latin American Nations in World Politics. eds. Heraldo Muñoz and Joseph S. Tulchin. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Hossain, Akhtar and Anis Chowdhury. 1996. Monetary and Financial Policies in Developing Countries: Growth and Stabilisation. New York: Routledge.
Hufbauer, Cary Clyde, Jeffrey J. Schott and Kimberly Ann Elliott. 1990. Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: Supplemental Case Histories. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.
Ikenberry, G. John. 1988. Reasons of State: Oil Politics and the Capacities of American Government. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
IMF. 2003. The IMF and Recent Capital Account Crises: Indonesia, Korea, Brazil. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
Immergut, Ellen M. 1992. “The Rule of the Game: the Logic of Health Policy-Making in France, Switzerland, and Sweden.” In Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis. eds. Sven Steinmo, Kathleen Thelen, and Frank Longstreth, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Institute of Latin American Studies. 1986. The Debt Crisis in Latin America. Monograph No. 13. Stockholm: Institute of Latin American Studies.
Jones, Leroy P. and IL Sakong. 1980. Government, Business, and Entrepreneurship in Economic Development: the Korean Case. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Jwa, Sung-Hee. 2001. A New Paradigm for Korea’s Economic Development: from Government Control to Market Economy. New York: Palgrave.
Kapstein, Ethan B. 1994. Governing the Global Economy: International Finance and the State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Katzenstein, Peter J., ed. 1978. Between Power and Plenty: Foreign Economic Policies of Advanced Industrial States. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Keohane, Robert O. and Helen V. Milner, eds. 1996. Internationalization and Domestic Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kim, Eun-Mee. 1997. Big Business, Strong State: Collusion and Conflict in South Korean Development, 1960-1990. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Kim, Ki-Hoon. 1982. “The Development of Contemporary U.S.-ROK Economic Relations.” In U.S.-Korean Relations, 1882-1982. eds. Tae-Hwan Kwak, et al. Seoul, Korea: Kyungnam University Press.
Kim, Mahn-Je. 1997. “The Republic of Korea’s Successful Economic Development and the World Bank.” In The World Bank: its First Half Century, Vol. 2: Perspectives. eds. Devesh Kapur, John Prior Lewis and Richard Charles Webb. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
Kingstone, Peter R. 1999a. Crafting Coalitions for Reform: Business Preferences, Political Institutions, and Neoliberal Reform in Brazil. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Kingstone, Peter R. 1999b. “Constitutional Reform and Macroeconomic Stability: Implications for Democratic Consolidation in Brazil.” In Market and Democracy in Latin America: Conflict or Convergence?. eds. Philip Oxhorn and Pamela K. Starr. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Kofas, Jon V. 2002. Sword of Damocles: The IMF, the World Bank, and US Foreign Policy in Columbia and Chile, 1950-1970. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Kong, Tat Yan. 2000. The Politics of Economic Reform in South Korea: A Fragile Miracle. New York: Routledge.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1978. “United States Commercial and Monetary Policy: Unraveling the Paradox of External Strength and Internal Weakness.” In Between Power and Plenty: Foreign Economic Policies of Advanced Industrial States. ed. Peter J. Katzenstein, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Krueger, Anne O. 1993. Political Economy of Policy Reform in Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kurzer, Paulette. 1993. Business and Banking: Political Change and Economic Integration in Western Europe. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Kwon, O. Yul and William Shepherd. 2001. Korea’s Economic Prospects: from Financial Crisis to Prosperity. Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar.
Lal, Deepak and Sylvia Maxfield. 1993. “The Political Economy of Stabilization in Brazil.” In Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countries. eds. Robert H. Bates and Anne O. Krueger. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.
Lie, John. 1998. Han Unbound: the Political Economy of South Korea. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Little, I.M.D. et al. 1993. Boom, Crisis, and Adjustment: the Macroeconomic Experience of Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.
Londregan, John B. 2000. Legislative Institutions and Ideology in Chile. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lowenthal, Abraham F. 1990. Partners in Conflict: The United States and Latin America in the 1990s. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lukauskas, Arvid. 1997. Regulating Finance: the Political Economy of Spanish Financial Policy from Franco to Democracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Mainwaring, Scott and Matthew Soberg Shugart, eds. 1997. Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott. 1995. “Weak Parties, Feckless Democracy.” In Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America. eds. Scott Mariwaring and Timothy R. Scully. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott. 1997. “Multipartism, Robust Federalism, and Presidentialism in Brazil.” In Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America. eds. Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Soberg Shugart. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott. 1999. Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: the Case of Brazil. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Malloy, James M. 1987. “The Politics of Transition in Latin America.” In Authoritarians and Democrats: Regime Transition in Latin America. eds. James M. Malloy and Mitchell A. Seligson. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Mamalakis, Markos, ed. 1989. Historical Statistics of Chile: Government Services and Public Sector and A Theory of Services. Vol. 6. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Maxfield, Sylvia. 1997. Gatekeepers of Growth: the International Political Economy of Central Banking in Developing Countries. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Mo, Jongryn and Chung-in Moon. 2003. “Business-Government Relations under Kim Dae-jung.” In Economic Crisis and Corporate Restructuring in Korea: Reforming the Chaebol. eds. Stephan Haggard, Wonhyuk Lim, and Euysung Kim. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Montero, Alfred P. 2005. Brazilian Politics: Reforming a Democratic State in a Changing World. Malden, Mass.: Polity Press.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 1993. “Introduction: Integrating International and Domestic Theories of International Bargaining.” In Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics. eds. Peter B. Evans, Harold K. Jacobson and Robert D. Putnam. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Moreira Alves, Maria Helena. 1983. “Mechanisms of Social Control of the Military Governments in Brazil, 1964-1980.” In Latin American Prospects for the 1980s: Equity, Democratization, and Development. eds. Archibald R. M. Ritter and David H. Pollock. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Munck, Ronaldo. 1989. Latin America: the Transition to Democracy. London: Zed Books.
Muñoz, Heraldo. 1986. “Chile’s External Relations under the Military Government.” In Military Rule in Chile: Dictatorship and Oppositions. eds. J. Samuel Valenzuela and Arturo Valenzuela. Baltimore: the Johns Hopkins University Press.
Nam, Sang-Woo. 1994. “Korea’s Financial Reform since the Early 1980s.” In Financial Reform: Theory and Experience. eds. Gerard Caprio, JR., Izak Atiyas and James A. Hanson. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nazmi, Nader. 1996. Economic Policy and Stabilization in Latin America. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Nelson, Joan M. 1994. “The Political Economic of Policy Reform: Panel Discussion.” In The Political Economy of Policy Reform. ed. John Williamson. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Nelson, Joan M., ed. 1990. Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: the Politics of Adjustment in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 2001. OECD Economic Surveys: Brazil, 2000-2001. Paris: OECD.
Olson, Mancur. 1982. The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Oppenheim, Lois Hecht. 1993. Politics in Chile: Democracy, Authoritarianism, and the Search for Development. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Pang, Eul-Soo. 1989. “Debt, Adjustment, and Democratic Cacophony in Brazil.” In Debt and Democracy in Latin America. eds. Barbara Stallings and Robert Kaufman. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Pang, Eul-Soo. 2001. International Political Economy of Transformation in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile since 1960. Gordonsville, VA, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
Park, Won-Am. 1996. “Financial Liberalization: Korean Experience.” In Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia. eds. Takatoshi Ito and Anne O. Krueger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pauly, Louis. 1987. Foreign Bank in Australia: the Politics of Deregulation. Sydney: Australian Professional Publications.
Pauly, Louis. 1988. Opening Financial Market: Banking Politics on the Pacific Rim. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Payne, Leigh A. 1994. Brazilian Industrialists and Democratic Change. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Petras, James and Morris Morley. 1975. The United States and Chile: Imperialism and the Overthrow of the Allende Government. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Petras, James and Morris Morley. 1992. Latin America in the Time of Cholera: Electoral Politics, Market Economics, and Permanent Crisis. New York: Routledge.
Pike, Fredrick B. 1963. Chile and the United States, 1880-1963: the Emergence of Chile’s Social Crisis and the Challenge to United States Diplomacy. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.
Piñera, José. 1994. “Chile.” In The Political Economy of Policy Reform. ed. John Williamson. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Przeworski, Adam. 1991. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Purcell, Susan Kaufman. 1997. “The New U.S.-Brazil Relationship.” In Brazil Under Cardoso. eds. Susan Kaufman Purcell and Riordan Roett. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Ragin, Charles C. 1987. The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ravich, Samantha F. 2000. Marketization and Democracy: East Asian Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Reinicke, Wolfgang H. 1995. Banking, Politics and Global Finance: American Commercial Banks and Regulatory Chang, 1980-1990. Brookfield, Vt., USA: Edward Elgar.
Rodrik, Dani. 1994. “The European Periphery: Comment.” In The Political Economy of Policy Reform. ed. John Williamson. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Roett, Riordan. 1978. Brazil: Politics in a Patrimonial Society. New York: Praeger.
Roett, Riordan. 2003. “Brazil’s Protracted Transition to Democracy and the Market.” In Post-Stabilization Politics in Latin America: Competition, Transition, Collapse. ed. Carol Wise. Washington, DC, USA: Brookings Institution Press.
Roxborough, Ian, Philip O'Brien, and Jackie Roddick. 1977. Chile: the State and Revolution. New York: Holmes & Meier.
Samuels, David J. 2002. “Progressive Ambition, Federalism and Pork-Barreling in Brazil.” In Legislative Politics in Latin America. ed. Scott Morgenstern. West Nyack, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Samuels, David J. 2004. “The Political Logic of Decentralization.” In The Decentralization and Democracy in Latin America. eds. Alfred P. Montero and David J. Samuels. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame.
Santiso, Javier. 2003. Political Economy of Emerging Markets: Actors, Institutions and Financial Crises in Latin America. Gordonsville, VA, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
Schneider, Ben Ross. 2004. Business Politics and the State in Twentieth-Century Latin America. West Nyack, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Schneider, Ronald M. 1971. The Political System of Brazil: Emergence of “Modernizing” Authoritarian Regime, 1964-1970. New York: Columbia University Press.
Schneider, Ronald M. 1996. Brazil: Culture and Polities in a New Industrial Powerhouse. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Schor, Juliet. 1992. “Introduction.” In Financial Openness and National Autonomy. eds. Tariq Banuri and Juliet Schor. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Shin, Dong-Myeon. 2003. Social and Economic Policies in Korea: Ideas, Networks and Linkages. New York: RoutledgeCurzon.
Shin, Roy W. and Yeon-Seob Ha. 2002. “Financial Crisis and Policy Reform: the South Korean Experience.” In Managing Economic Development in Asia: from Economic Miracle to Financial Crisis. ed. Kuotsai Tom Liou. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.
Sigmund, Paul E. 1977. The Overthrow of Allende and the Politics of Chile, 1964-1976. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Sigmund, Paul E. 1993. The United States and Democracy in Chile. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1991. Ideas and Institutions: Developmentalism in Brazil and Argentina. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Silva, Eduardo. 1996. The State and Capital in Chile: Business Elites, Technocrats, and Market Economics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Silva, Eduardo. 1997. “Business Elites, the State, and Economic Change in Chile.” In Business and the State in Developing Countries. eds. Sylvia Maxfield and Ben Ross Schneider. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Singer, Paul. “Democracy and Inflation in the Light of the Brazilian Experience.” In Lost Promises: Debt, Austerity, and Development in Lain America. ed. William Canak. Boulder: Westview Press.
Skidmore, Thomas E. 1967. Politics in Brazil, 1930-1964: an Experiment in Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Skidmore, Thomas E. 1973. “Politics and Economic Policy Making in Authoritarian Brazil, 1937-71.” In Authoritarian Brazil: Origins, Policies, and Future. ed. Alfred Stepan. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Skidmore, Thomas E. 1977. “The Politics of Economic Stabilization in Postwar Latin America.” In Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America. ed. James Malloy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Skidmore, Thomas E. 1988. The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-85. New York: Oxford University Press.
Skidmore, Thomas E. 1989. “Brazil’s Slow Road to Democratization: 1974-1985.” In Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation. ed. Alfred Stepan. New York: Oxford University Press.
Skidmore, Thomas E. and Peter H. Smith. 2005. Modern Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sobel, Andrew C. 1994. Domestic Choices, International Markets: Dismantling National Barriers and Liberalizing Securities Market. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Sohn, Hak-Kyu. 1989. Authoritarianism and Opposition in South Korea. New York: Routledge.
Song, Byung-Nak. 1990. The Rise of the Korean Economy. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Stallings, Barbara and Robert Kaufman. 1989. “Debt and Democracy in the 1980s: the Latin American Experience.” In Debt and democracy in Latin America. eds. Barbara Stallings and Robert Kaufman. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Stallings, Barbara. 1978. Class Conflict and Economic Development in Chile, 1958-1973. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Stallings, Barbara. 1987. Banker to the Third World: U.S. Portfolio Investment in Latin America, 1900-1986. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stallings, Barbara. 1989. “Political Economy of Democratic Transition: Chile in the 1980s.” In Debt and democracy in Latin America. eds. Barbara Stallings and Robert Kaufman. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Stallings, Barbara. 1992. “International Influence on Economic Policy: Debt, Stabilization, and Structural Reform.” In The Politics of Economic Adjustment: International Constraints, Distributive Conflicts, and the State. eds. Stephan Haggard and Robert R. Kaufman. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Stein, Stanley J. and Barbara H. Stein. 1970. The Colonial Heritage of Latin America: Essays on Economic Dependence in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stepan, Alfred. 1978. “Political Leadership and Regime Breakdown: Brazil.” In The Breakdown of Democracies Regimes. eds. Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan. Baltimore: the Johns Hopkins University Press.
Stuart, Graham H. and James L. Tigner. 1975. Latin America and the United States. 6th. ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Studart, Rogério. 1995. Investment Finance in Economic Development. New York: Routledge.
Toye, John. 1994. “In Search of a Manual for Technopols: Comment.” In The Political Economy of Policy Reform. ed. John Williamson. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Tsebelis, George. 2002. Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Valenzuela, Arturo. 1978. The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Chile. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Valenzuela, Arturo. 1994. “Party Politics and the Crisis of Presidentialism in Chile: A Proposal for a Parliamentary Form of Government.” In The Failure of Presidential Democracy. eds. Juan J. Linz and Arturo Valenzuela. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Valenzuela, Arturo. 1999. “Chile: Origins and Consolidation of a Latin American Democracy.” In Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America. eds. Larry Diamond et al. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Vanden, Harry E. 2001. Politics of Latin America: the Power Game. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press.
Velasco, Andrés. 1991. “Liberalization, Crisis, Intervention: the Chilean Financial System, 1975-85.” In Banking Crises: Cases and Issues. eds. Vasudevan Sundararajan and Tomas J.T. Balino. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
Wad, Peter. 2002. “The Political Business of Development in South Korea.” In Political Business in East Asia. ed. Edmund Terence Gomez. London: Routledge.
Wade, L. L. and B. S. Kim. 1978. Economic Development of South Korea: the Political Economy of Success. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Wade, Robert. 2001. “The US Role in the Long Asian Crisis of 1990-2000.” In The Political Economy of the East Asian Crisis and its Aftermath: Tigers in Distress. eds. Arvid John Lukauskas and Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz. Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar Pub.
Waltz, Kenneth N. 1959. Man, the State and War: A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press.
Waltz, Kenneth N. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
Waterbury, John. 1992. “The Heart of the Matter? Public Enterprise and the Adjustment Process.” In The Politics of Economic Adjustment: International Constraints, Distributive Conflicts, and the State. eds. Stephan Haggard and Robert R. Kaufman. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Watson, Cynthia. 1990. “Brazil and the Great Powers: Gradual Reorientation.” In Great Power Relations in Argentina, Chile and Antarctica. ed. Michael A. Morris. Hampshire: Macmillan.
Weaver, Kent R. and Bert A. Rockman. 1993. Do Institutions Matter? Government Capabilities in the United States and Abroad. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
Weir, Margaret and Theda Skocpol. 1985. “State Structures and the Possibilities for ‘Keynesian’ Responses to the Great Depression in Sweden, Britain, and the United States.” In Bring the State Back In. eds. Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocopl. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weyland, Kurt G. 1996. Democracy without Equity: Failures of Reform in Brazil. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Weyland, Kurt G. 2002. The Politics of Market Reform in Fragile Democracies: Argentina, Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Whitaker, Arthur P. 1976. The United States and the Southern Cone: Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Williamson, John and Stephan Haggard. 1994. “The Political Conditions for Economic Reform.” In The Political Economy of Policy Reform. ed. John Williamson. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Williamson, John. 1990. ed. Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Williamson, John. 1994. ed. The Political Economy of Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Woo, Jung-en. 1991. Race to the Swift: State and Finance in Korean Industrialization. New York: Columbia University Press.
Woo-Cumings, Meredith. 1997. “Slouching toward the Market: the Politics of Financial Liberalization in South Korea.” In Capital Ungoverned: Liberalizing Finance in Interventionist States. eds. Michael Loriaux, et al. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Yang, Sung-Chul. 1994. The North and South Korea Political Systems: A Comparative Analysis. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Zhang, Xiaoke. 2003. The Changing Politics of Finance in Korea and Thailand: from Deregulation to Debacle. New York: Routledge.
Zysman, John. 1983. Governments, Markets, and Growth: Financial Systems and the Politics of Industrial Change. Oxford: Martin Robertson.

三、期刊、論文
(一)中文部份
宋林峰,1997,〈試析通貨膨脹對巴西金融改革的影響〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,第3期,頁15-19。
張啟雄、葉長城,2007,〈「政經分離」VS.「政經一體」的「名實論」分析:戰後日本對兩岸政策的形成與轉變(1952-1972)〉,《亞太研究論壇》,第35期,頁122-193。
葉長城,2003,「新興民主國家的政治問責與金融改革:南韓與泰國的比較觀點」,〈2003年台灣的東南亞區域研究年度研討會〉,中央研究院蔡元培人文社會科學中心 亞太區域研究專題中心主辦、淡江大學東南亞研究所、暨南國際大學東南亞研究所與中山大學東南亞研究中心協辦,4月25日至26日,46頁。
鄭雅綺,2000,〈南韓金融體系改革的具體作法與成效:兼述中、韓金融改革成果比較〉,《自由中國之工業》,第90卷第1期,頁41-66。

(二)英文部分
Abiad, Abdul and Ashoka Mody. 2005. “Financial Reform: What Shakes It? What Shapes It? .” The American Economic Review 95(1): 66-88.
Alesina, Alberto and Allan Drazen. 1991. “Why are Stabilizations Delayed?.” American Economic Review 81(5): 1170-1188.
Alesina, Alberto and Nouriel Roubini. 1992. “Political Cycles in OECD Economies.” The Review of Economic Studies 59(4): 663-88.
Alston, Lee J. et al. 2005. “Political Institutions, Policymaking Processes and Policy Outcomes in Brazil.” Research Program on Environment and Behavior. Institute of Behavioral Science. Working Paper EB2005-0007. Boulder, CO.: University of Colorado.
Amann, Edmund and Werner Baer. 2000. “The Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy under Cardoso.” World Development 28(10): 1805-1819.
Ames, Barry. 1995. “Electoral Strategy under Open-List Proportional Representation.” American Journal of Political Science 39(2): 406-433.
Amsden, Alice H. and Yoon-Dae Euh. 1993. “South Korea’s 1980s Financial Reforms: Good-bye Financial Repression (Maybe), Hello New Institutional Restraints.” World Development 21(3): 379-390.
Aninat, Cristobal et al. 2006. “Political Institutions, Policymaking Processes and Policy Outcomes in Chile.” Inter-American Development Bank, Research Network Working Paper R-521.
Armijo, Leslie Elliott and Philippe Faucher. 2005. “When Do Countries Cope Well with External Shocks? The Politics of Bouncing Back in Argentina and Brazil.” Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Panel FD31, “Exchange Rate: Fixed or Flexible?, Honolulu, March 2-5.
Armijo, Leslie Elliott, Philippe Faucher, and Magdalena Dembinska. 2006. “Compared to What?: Assessing Brazil’s Political Institutions.” Comparative Political Studies 39(6): 759-786.
Armijo, Leslie Elliott. 1989. “Public Policymaking in a Semi-Autonomous State: Brazilian Financial Modernization, 1950 to 1987.” Ph.D. diss. University of California, Berkeley.
Armijo, Leslie Elliott. 1996. “Inflation and Insouciance: The Peculiar Brazilian Game.” Latin American Research Review 31(3): 7-46.
Baer, Werner and Annibal V. Villela. 1980. “The Changing Nature of Development Banking in Brazil.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 22(4): 423-440.
Bandiera, Oriana, et al. 1999. “Does Financial Reform Increase or Reduce Savings?.” The World Bank Development Research Group Finance, Policy Research Working Paper No. 2062.
Bandiera, Oriana, et al. 2000. “Does Financial Reform Increase or Reduce Savings?.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 82(2): 239-263.
Barnard, Andrew. 1981. “Chilean Communists, Radical Presidents and Chilean Relations with the United States, 1940-1947.” Journal of Latin American Studies 13(2): 347-374.
Barrett, Patrick. 2000. “Chile’s Transformed Party System and the Future of Democratic Stability.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 42(3): 1-32.
Bonomo, Marco and Cristina Terra. 1999. “The Political Economy of Exchange Rate Policy in Brazil: 1964-1997.” Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 341. Graduate School of Economics. Brazil: Getulio Vargas Foundation.
Boylan, Delia M. 1998. “Preemptive Strike: Central Bank Reform in Chile’s Transition from Authoritarian Rule.” Comparative Politics 30(4): 443-462.
Briones, Ignacio and André Villela. 2006. “European Banks and their Impact on the Banking Industry in Chile and Brazil, 1862-1913.” Oesterreichische Nationalbank Working Papers, No.108.
Castiglioni, Rossana. 2001. “The Politics of Retrenchment: the Quandaries of Social Protection under Military Rule in Chile, 1973-1990.” Latin American Politics and Society 43(4): 37-66.
Choi, Yoo-Sung and Deil S. Wright. 2004. “Intergovernmental Relation (IGR) in Korea and Japan: Phases, Patterns, and Progress toward Decentralization (Local Autonomy) in a Trans-Pacific Context.” International Review of Public Administration 9(1): 1-22.
Considera, Claudio Monteiro and Paulo Corrêa. 2001. “The Political Economy of Antitrust in Brazil: from Price Control to Competition Policy.” Paper prepared for Fordham Conference on Competition Policy, NY. <http://www.seae.fazenda.gov.br/central_documentos/documento_trabalho/2002-1/doctrab11.pdf> (July 30, 2007).
Croissant, Aurel. 2003. “Legislative Powers, Veto Players, and the Emergence of Delegative Democracy: A Comparison of Presidentialism in the Philippines and Korea.” Democratization 10(3): 69-98.
de Souza, Amaury. 1999. “Cardoso and the Struggle for Reform in Brazil.” Journal of Democracy 10(3): 49-63.
Dollar, David and Jakob Svensson. 2000. “What Explains the Success or Failure of Sturctural Adjustment Programmes?.” The Economic Journal 110(466): 894-917.
Drazen, Allan, and Vittorio Grilli. 1993. “The Benefit of Crises for Economic Reforms.” American Economic Review 83: 598-607.
Faucher, Philippe and Pauline Baggio-Huerre. 1980. “Industrial Policy in a Dependent State: The Case of Brazil.” Latin American Perspectives 7(1): 3-22.
Fernandez, Raquel and Dani Rodrik. 1991. “Resistance to Reform: Status Quo Bias in the Presence of Individual-Specific Uncertainty.” American Economic Review 81(5): 1146-55.
Flynn, Peter. “Brazil: the Politics of the ‘Plano Real’.” Third World Quarterly 17(3): 401-426.
Frieden, Jeff. 1981. “Third World Indebted Industrialization: International Finance and State Capitalism in Mexico, Brazil, Algeria, and South Korea.” International Organization 35(3): 407-431.
Frieden, Jeffry A. 1991. “Invested Interests: The Politics of National Economic Policies in a World of Global Finance.” International Organization 45(4): 425-451.
Frye, Timothy and Edward d. Mansfield. 2004. “Timing is Everything: Elections and Trade Liberalization in the Postcommunist World.” Comparative Political Studies 37(4): 371-398.
Geddes, Barbara. 1990. “Building ‘State’ Autonomy in Brazil, 1930-1964.” Comparative Politics 22(2): 217-235.
Gibson, Heather D. and Euclid Tsakalotos. 1994. “The Scope and Limits of Financial Liberalisation in Developing Countries: A Critical Survey.” The Journal of Development Studies 30(3): 578-628.
Goodman, John B. and Louis W. Pauly. 1993. “The Obsolescence of Capital Controls? Economic Management in an Age of Global Market.” World Politics 46(1): 50-82.
Gourevitch, Peter. 1978. “The Second Image Reversed: the International Sources of Domestic Politics.” International Organization 32(4): 881-912.
Grilli, Vittorio and Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti. 1995. “Economic Effects and Structural Determinants of Capital Controls.” Staff Papers-International Monetary Fund 42(3): 517-551.
Guimarães, Alexandre Queiroz1. 2005. “Historical Institutionalism and Economic Policymaking Determinants of the Pattern of Economic Policy in Brazil, 1930-1960.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 24(4): 527-542.
Ha, Yong-Chool and Wang Hwi Lee. 2007. “The Politics of Economic Reform in South Korea: Crony Capitalism after Ten Years.” Asian Survey 47(6): 894-914.
Haggard, Stephan and Steven B. Webb. 1993. “What do We Know about the Political Economy of Economic Policy Reform?.” World Bank Research Observe 8(2): 143-68.
Haggard, Stephan, Byung-kook Kim and Chung-in Moon. 1991. “The Transition to Export-led Growth in South Korea: 1954-1966.” The Journal of Asian Studies 50(4): 850-873.
Hall, Peter A. and Rosemary C. R. Taylor. 1996. “Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms.” Political Studies 44(5): 936-957.
Haring, Clarence H. 1931. “Chilean Politics, 1920-1928.” The Hispanic American Historical Review 11(1): 1-26.
Hastings, Laura A. 1993a. “The Politics of Financial Policy in Argentina and Chile: Liberalization, Crisis, and Re-regulation.” Ph.D. diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Hibbs, Douglas A. Jr. 1977. “Political Parties and Macroeconomic Policy.” The American Political Science Review 71(4): 1467-87.
Hilton, Stanley E. 1981. “The United States, Brazil, and the Cold War, 1945-1960: End of the Special Relationship.” The Journal of American History 68(3): 599-624.
Hojman, David E. 1990. “Chile after Pinochet: Aylwin’s Christian Democratic Economic Policies for the 1990s.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 9(1): 25-47.
Hojman, David E. 1995. “Chile Under Frei (Again): the First Latin American Tiger-or Just Another Cat?.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 14(2): 127-142.
Im, Hyug-Baeg. 2004. “Faltering Democratic Consolidation in South Korea: Democracy at the End of the ‘Three Kims’ Era.” Democratization 11(5): 179-198.
Inman, Samuel Guy. 1921. “The Monroe Doctrine and Hispanic America.” The Hispanic American Historical Review 4(4): 635-676.
Ishihara, Yoichiro. 2005. “Quantitative Analysis of Crisis: Crisis Identification and Causality.” The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3598.
Jesse, Neal G., Uk Heo and Karl DeRouen, Jr. 2002. “A Nested Game Approach to Political and Economic Liberalization in Democratizing States: the Case of South Korea.” International Studies Quarterly 46: 401-422.
Kaminsky, Graciela and Sergio L. Schmukler. 2003. “Short-Run Pain, Long-Run Gain: The Effects of Financial Liberalization.” IMF Working Paper No. 03/34.
Kastner, Scott L. and Chad Rector. 2003. “International Regimes, Domestic Veto-Players, and Capital Controls Policy Stability.” International Studies Quarterl 47: 1-22.
Kastner, Scott L. and Chad Rector. 2005. “Partisanship and the Path to Financial Openness.” Comparative Political Studies 38(5): 484-506.
Kay, Cristobal. 1979. “Chile since 1920.” Latin American Research Review 14(3): 264-279.
Kim, Wangsik. 2005. “Policy Reform in Japan and South Korea, 1997-2002.” International Review of Public Administration 9(2): 39-53
Kinley, David. “Review: El Papel Moneda.” The American Economic Review 4(1): 169-170.
Kofas, Jon V. 1999. “Growth by Debt: Foreign Borrowing and Dependent Capitalism in Chile, 1958-1970.” Journal of Third World Studies 16(1): 101-135.
Kondoh, Hisahiro. 2002. “Policy Networks in South Korea and Taiwan during the Democratic era.” The Pacific Review 15(2): 225-244.
Krueger, Anne O. 1974. “The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society.” American Economic Review 64(3): 291-303.
Kurtz, Marcus J. 1999. “Chile’s Neo-Liberal Revolution Incremental Decisions and Structural Transformation, 1973-89.” Journal of Latin American Studies 31(2): 399-427.
Kwon, Eundak. 2004. “Financial Liberalization in South Korea.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 34(1): 70-101.
Labán, Raul and Federico Sturzenegger. 1994a. “Distributional Conflict, Financial Adaptation and Delayed Stabilizations.” Economics and Politics 6(3): 257-76.
Labán, Raul and Federico Sturzenegger. 1994b. “Fiscal Conservatism as a Response to the Debt Crisis.” Journal of Development Economics 45(2): 305-24.
Laeven, Luc. 2003. “Does Financial Liberalization Reduce Financing Constraints?.” Financial Management 32(1): 5-34.
Leblang, David A. 1997. “Domestic and Systemic Determinants of Capital Controls in the Developed and Developing World.” International Studies Quarterly 41: 435-454.
Lee, Chung H. 2005. “The Political Economy of Institutional Reform in Korea.” Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 10(3): 257-277.
Li, Quan and Dale L. Smith. 2002. “Testing Alternative Explanations of Capital Control Liberalization.” Policy Studies Review 19(1): 28-52.
Lijphart, Arend. 1971. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method.” American Political Science Review 65(3): 682-693.
Lora, Eduardo and Mauricio Olivera. 2004. “What Makes Reforms Likely: Political Economy Determinants of Reforms in Latin America.” Journal of Applied Economics 7(1): 99-135.
Lorenzini, Michelle Suzanne. 2000. “The Politics of Finance in the East Asian Newly Industrializing Countries.” Ph.D. diss. Washington University.
Ma, Shu-Yun. 1999. “The Rise and Fall of Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism in Chile.” Studies in Comparative International Development 34(3): 51-65.
Mamalakis, Markos. 1969. “An Analysis of the Financial and Investment Activities of the Chilean Development Corporation: 1939-1964.” Journal of Development Studies 5(2): 118-137.
Martins, Marco Antonio Campos. 2002. “Constitutional Regimes, Growth and Stagnation in the Brazilian Economy: 1947-1999.” Department of Economics Working Paper 261. Brasília: University of Brasília.
Mayo, John. 1981. “Britain and Chile, 1851-1886: Anatomy of a Relationship.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 23(1): 95-120.
McKinnon, R. I. 1989. “Financial Liberalization and Economic Development: A Reasement of Interest-rate Policies in Asia and Latin America.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 5(4): 29-54.
Menges, Constantine C. 1966. “Public Policy and Organized Business in Chile: A Preliminary Analysis.” Journal of International Affairs 20(2): 343-365.
Mo, Jongryn and Chung-in Moon. 1999. “Korea after the Crash.” Journal of Democracy 10(3): 150-164.
Mo, Jongryn. 2000. “The Politics of Economic Reform: South Korea.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, <http://www.ceip.org/programs/pole-con/poleconpubs.htm>(accessed April 22, 2008).
Mo, Jongryn. 2001. “Political Culture and Legislative Gridlock: Politics of Economic Reform in Precrisis Korea.” Comparative Political Studies 34(5): 467-492.
Montes, J. Esteban, Scott Mainwaring and Eugenio Ortega. 2000. “Rethinking the Chilean Party System.” Journal of Latin American Studies 32(3): 795-824.
Nef, Jorge. 2003. “The Chilean Model: Facts and Fiction.” Latin American Perspectives 30(5): 16-40.
Nunn, Frederick M. 1967. “Military Rule in Chile: The Revolutions of September 5, 1924 and January 23, 1925.” The Hispanic American Historical Review 47(1): 1-21.
O’Donnell, Guillermo. 1994. “Delegative Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 5(1): 55-69.
Olavarría, Margot. 2003. “Protected Neoliberalism: Perverse Institutionalization and the Crisis of Representation in Post-dictatorship Chile.” Latin American Perspectives 30(6): 10-38.
Oxhorn, Philip. 1994. “Understanding Political Change after Authoritarian Rule: The Popular Sectors and Chile’s New Democratic Regime.” Journal of Latin American Studies 26(3): 737-759.
Packenham, Robert A. 1994. “The Politics of Economic Liberalization: Argentina and Brazil in Comparative Perspective.” Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame. Working Paper No. 206.
Panizza, Francisco. 2000. “Neopopulism and its Limits in Collor’s Brazil.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 19: 177-192.
Peláez, Carlos Manuel. 1975. “The Establishment of Banking Institutions in a Backward Economy: Brazil, 1800-1851.” The Business History Review 49(4): 446-72.
Plender, John. 1986-1987. “Deregulation and the London Stock Exchange: London’s Big Bang in International Context.” International Affairs 63(1): 39-48.
Pregger-Roman, Charles. 1978. “The Role of the Banking and Insurance Sector in the Faliure of the Industrial Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Chile.” Studies in Comparative International Development 13(Fall): 76-96.
Pregger-Roman, Charles. 1983. “The Origin and Development of the Bourgeoisie in Nineteenth-Century Chile.” Latin American Perspectives 10(2/3): 39-59.
Putnam, Robert D. 1988. “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: the Logic of Two-Level Games.” International Organization 42(3): 427-460.
Remmer, Karen L. 1977. “The Timing, Pace and Sequence of Political Changing in Chile, 1981-1925.” The Hispanic American Historical Review 57(2): 205-230.
Remmer, Karen L. 1990. “Democracy and Economic Crisis: the Latin American Experience.” World Politics 42(3): 315-335.
Rippy, J. Fred. 1952. “British in Latin America: A Decade of Rapid Reduction, 1940-1950.” The Hispanic American Historical Review 32(2): 285-292.
Rippy, J. Fred. 1954. “British Investments in Latin America at Their Peak.” The Hispanic American Historical Review 34(1): 94-102.
Rocha, Geisa Maria. 1994. “Redefining the Role of the Bourgeoisie in Dependent Capitalist Development: Privatization and Liberalization in Brazil.” Latin American Perspectives 21(1): 72-98.
Rodrik, Dani. 1996. “Understanding Economic Policy Reform.” Journal of Economic Literature 34(1): 9-41.
Schamis, Hector E. 1999. “Distributional Coalitions and the Politics of Economic Reform in Latin America.” World Politics 51(January): 236-68.
Scharpf, Fritz W. 2000. “Institutions in Comparative Policy Research.” Comparative Political Studies 33(6/7): 762-790.
Segura-Ubiergo, Alex. 2002. “Globalization, Domestic Politics and the Welfare State in the Developing World: Latin America in Comparative Perspective, 1973-1997.” Ph.D. diss. Columbia University in the City of New York.
Silva, Eduardo. 1993. “Capitalist Coalitions, the State, and Neoliberal Economic Restructuring: Chile, 1973-88.” World Politics 45(4): 526-559.
Sullivan, Mark P. 2003. “Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations.” CRS Report for US Congress. RL30035.
Tapia-Videla, Jorge. 1977. “The Chilean Presidency in a Developmental Perspective.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 19(4): 451-481.
Thurbon, Elizabeth. 2001. “Two Paths to Financial Liberalization: South Korea and Taiwan.” The Pacific Review 14(2): 241-267.
Thurbon, Elizabeth. 2003. “Ideational Inconsistency and Institutional Incapacity: Why Financial Liberalisation in South Korea Went Horribly Wrong?.” New Political Economy 8(3): 341-361.
Tommasi, Mariano and Andrés Velasco. 1995. “Where Are We in the Political Economy of Reform?.” Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles Working Paper No. 733.
Tornell, Aaron. 1998. “Reform from Within.” National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Papers No. 6497.
Treisman, Daniel. 2003. “Cardoso, Menem, and Machiavelli: Political Tactics and Privatization in Latin America.” Studies in Comparative International Development 38(3): 93-109.
Treisman, Daniel. 2004. “Stabilization Tactics in Latin America: Menem, Cardoso, and the Politics of Low Inflation.” Comparative Politics 36(4): 399-419.
Triner, Gail D. 2006. “British Banks in Brazil during an Early Era of Globalization (1889-1930).” Paper presented at European Banks in Latin America during the First Age of Globalization, 1870-1914, Session 102, XIV International Economic History Congress, Helsinki, 21 August.
Tsebelis, George. 1995. “Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism.” British Journal of Political Science 25(3): 289-325.
Tsebelis, George. 1999. “Veto Players and Law Production in Parliamentary Democracies: An Empirical Analysis.” American Political Science Review 93(3): 591-608.
Valenca, Marcio Moraes. 2002. “The Politics of Giving in Brazil: the Rise and Demise of Collor, 1990-1992.” Latin American Perspectives 29(1): 115-152.
Weiss, Linda. 2000. “Developmental State in Transition: Adapting, Dismantling, Innovating, Not ‘Normalizing’.” The Pacific Review 13(1):21-55.
Zhang, Xiaoke. 2002. “Domestic Institutions, Liberalization Patterns, and Uneven Crisis in Korea and Taiwan.” The Pacific Review 15(3): 409-442.

四、網站資料
“Alliance for Progress.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth ed. 2001-05. http://www.bartleby.com/65/al/AlliancPro.html (September 7, 2006).
“Point Four Program.” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease, 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease, http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0839466.html (1 May, 2007).
「朝鮮王朝」、「李成桂」與「兩班」,《大英簡明百科》,2004,<http://sc.hrd.gov.tw/ebintra/Default.asp>(2008年1月4日)。
「新中文名稱“首爾(SEOUL)”」,<http://chinese.seoul.go.kr/government/mayor/speeches/speeches_050119.cfm>(2005年1月19日)。
Banco Central de Chile. “Functions and Organization.” http://www.bcentral.cl/eng/funorg/functions/ (January 10, 2007).
Banco de Dados Políticos das Américas. 1999. Brazil: Eleições Legislativas de 1982 / 1982 Legislative Elections. [Internet]. Georgetown University e Organização dos Estados Americanos. Em: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Elecdata/Brazil/legis1982.html. 16 de agosto 2002.
Banco de Dados Políticos das Américas. (1999) Brazil: Eleições Legislativas de 1966 / 1966 Legislative Elections. [Internet]. Georgetown University e Organização dos Estados Americanos. Em: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Elecdata/Brazil/legis1966.html. 18 de outubro 2002.
Basic Constitutional Act of the Central Bank of Chile (Law 18,840). http://www.bcentral.cl/eng/funorg/organiclaw/ (January 10, 2007).
Brazilian Government. “About Brazil: Overview.” http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/ (March 28, 2007).
Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Brazil/english96.html (August 27, 2007).
Constitution of the Republic of Chile, 1980. http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/Chile.pdf (December 12, 2006).
IMF. “IMF Chronology.” http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/chron/chron.asp (August 28, 2006).
Lloyds TSB. “About Lloyds TSB: History.” http://www.lloydstsb.com/about_ltsb.asp (April 10, 2007).
Ministerio de Hacienda, Chile. “Organismos Dependientes: Superintendencia de Bancos e Instituciones Financieras.” http://www.hacienda.gov.cl/ministerio.php (January 10, 2007).
Political Database of the Americas. 1999. Brazil: 1989 Presidential Election / Eleições Presidenciais de 1989. [Internet]. Georgetown University and the Organization of American States. In: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Elecdata/Brazil/pres89.html. 27 agosto 2007.
Superintendencia de Administradoras de Fondos de Pensiones (SAFP). “Misión y Objetivos.” http://www.safp.cl/sist_previsional/index.html (January 10, 2007).
Superintendencia de Valores y Seguros (SVS). “Historic Outline.” http://www.svs.cl/sitio/english/html/institucional/f_present.html (January 10, 2007)
World Bank. “Multilateral Development Banks.” June 30, 2003. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,,contentMDK:20040614~menuPK:41699~pagePK:43912~piPK:44037~theSitePK:29708,00.html (February 16, 2007).
World Bank. “The World Bank Group Historical Chronology.” http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTARCHIVES/Resources/World_Bank_Group_Historical_Chronology_19944_2005_.pdf (August 29, 2006).
 
 
 
 
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
* *