帳號:guest(3.239.2.222)          離開系統
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  

詳目顯示

以作者查詢圖書館館藏以作者查詢臺灣博碩士以作者查詢全國書目勘誤回報
作者(中):鄭致道
作者(英):Cheng, Chih-Tao
論文名稱(中):醫療領域之破壞性創新:以遠距心理諮商為例
論文名稱(英):Online counseling: an example of disruptive innovation in healthcare
指導教授(中):宋皇志
指導教授(英):Sung, Huang-Chih
口試委員:彭朱如
李玉嬋
口試委員(外文):Peng, Tzu-Ju
Lee, Yuh-Chain
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:經營管理碩士學程(EMBA)
出版年:2020
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:46
中文關鍵詞:破壞式創新遠距心理諮商通訊心理諮商心理諮詢行動健康移動健康商業模式
英文關鍵詞:Disruptive innovationOnline counselingOnline therapyMobile healthBusiness model
Doi Url:http://doi.org/10.6814/NCCU202100067
相關次數:
  • 推薦推薦:1
  • 點閱點閱:116
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:34
  • gshot_favorites title msg收藏:0
破壞式創新就是以較簡單、較便利、較低價的產品,瞄準低端市場,之後再逐步進攻主流市場。遠距心理諮商符合破壞性創新的特徵,雖然缺少面對面實體諮商的某些優點,但利用其較低價與便利的服務,能夠吸引到原本不是使用者的族群,而逐步滲入市場。

國內很早就有張老師、生命線這一類的非面對面心理諮商,2019年也通過了通訊心理諮商相關辦法,為以文字或影音對談的遠距心理諮商,提供了法令依據,雖然行動商務心理介入方案發展得較中國慢,但也有已開發完成的案例。本研究進行文獻回顧、資料收集、以及專家訪談,利用「平安好醫生、「簡單心理」、以及國內「遠距抱抱」作為個案來分析,介紹其發展沿革、功能特色、與商業模式。

遠距心理諮商符合平臺經濟雙邊市場的特徵,具有跨邊網絡效應,也會透過減免價格敏感度較高的使用者之費用,以達到平臺成長的目標。平臺雖然以遠距心理諮商抽成為主要收入來源,然而可能不足以產生盈餘,因此,目前大多透過線上線下結合、加值服務、以及銷售其他相關產品,期待達到獲利的目標。遠距心理諮商要進入主流,成為成功的治療與商業模式,必須符合實證醫學、嘗試各種方式提供服務、採用市場策略來推廣和傳播、並根據監測數據和回饋來持續進行品質改善。
Disruptive innovation targets the low-end market with simpler, more convenient, and lower-priced products. Moreover, it manages to gradually enter the mainstream market. Online counseling or online therapy shares the characteristics of disruptive innovation. Although it lacks some advantages of face-to-face counseling, its lower-priced and convenient service can attract people who are not originally users and may further diffuse through the market.

Non-face-to-face counseling, such as Teacher Chang and Lifeline, has been existing in Taiwan for years. In 2019, relevant measures for online counseling were also passed to provide a legal basis for online therapy via text or video chat. Although the development of mobile psychological intervention in Taiwan is slower than that in China, cases are available on the market. This study conducted a literature review, data collection, and expert interviews. I used “Ping An Good Doctor,” “Jiandan Xinli,” and “FarHugs” as examples and introduced their development histories, functional characteristics, and business models.

Online counseling platforms conform to the characteristics of the platform economy’s two-sided market through the presence of cross-side or indirect network effect. Moreover, by attracting users with higher price-sensitivity using subsidies, online counseling platforms can achieve their goal of platform growth. However, online counseling may not be enough to generate a surplus relying on revenue share as the main income source. Hence, currently, most of these platforms are expected to achieve profit goals through online to offline integration, value-added services, and sales of other related products. For online counseling to enter the mainstream and become a successful treatment and business model, it must produce evidence-based medicine, try various ways of providing services, adopt market strategies for promotion and dissemination, and continue to improve quality based on monitoring data and feedback.
謝 辭 i
論文摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目次 iv
表次 vi
圖次 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 2
一、研究目的 2
二、研究問題 2
第三節 名詞釋義 3
一、 遠距醫療 3
二、 遠距心理諮商 3
第四節 研究範圍 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 破壞式創新之文獻回顧 5
一、破壞式創新的定義與相關研究 5
二、生技醫療領域的破壞式創新 6
第二節 遠距心理諮商之文獻回顧 8
一、遠距心理諮商的優勢 8
二、遠距心理諮商的局限與特殊考量 10
第三章 研究方法 12
第四章 研究結果與討論 13
第一節 華人地區遠距心理諮商現況 13
一、華人地區心理諮商的歷史沿革 13
二、華人地區遠距心理諮商的發展 15
三、華人地區遠距心理諮商的法令規範 15
第二節 個案分析 18
一、 平安好醫生 18
二、 簡單心理 23
三、 遠距抱抱 25
四、 跨個案比較 27
第三節 遠距心理諮商的商業模式 29
一、 以遠距心理諮商進行破壞性創新 29
二、 遠距心理諮商與平臺經濟 30
三、 遠距心理諮商之營運與行銷策略 33
第五章 結論與建議 35
第一節 結論 35
第二節 建議 36
參考文獻 38
Anderson, P., Jacobs, C., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2004). Computer-supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60(3), 253-267. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10262
Anthony, K. (2015). Training therapists to work effectively online and offline within digital culture. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 43(1), 36-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2014.924617
Armstrong, M., & Wright, J. (2018). Two-Sided Markets. In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (pp. 13956-13959). Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_2758
Barak, A., Klein, B., & Proudfoot, J. G. (2009). Defining Internet-supported Therapeutic Interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(1), 4-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-009-9130-7
Beard, C., & Amir, N. (2008). A Multi-session Interpretation Modification Program: Changes in interpretation and social anxiety symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(10), 1135-1141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.05.012
Bolton, W. S., Aruparayil, N., Quyn, A., Scott, J., Wood, A., Bundu, I., Gnanaraj, J., Brown, J. M., & Jayne, D. G. (2019). Disseminating Technology in Global Surgery. British Journal of Surgery, 106(2), e34-e43. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11036
Bower, J. L., & Christensen, C. M. (1995). Disruptive Technologies - Catching the Wave. Harvard business review, 73(1), 43-53.
Carlbring, P., Bohman, S., Brunt, S., Buhrman, M., Westling, B. E., Ekselius, L., & Andersson, G. (2006). Remote Treatment of Panic Disorder: A randomized trial of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy supplemented with telephone calls. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(12), 2119-2125. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.12.2119
Cartreine, J. A., Ahern, D. K., & Locke, S. E. (2010). A Roadmap to Computer-based Psychotherapy in the United States. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 18(2), 80-95. https://doi.org/10.3109/10673221003707702
Center for Connected Health Policy. (2020). Telehealth and Medicare. Retrieved 2020/12/8 from https://www.cchpca.org/telehealth-policy/telehealth-and-medicare
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2020). Medicare Telemedicine Health Care Provider Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2020/12/8 from https://www.cms.gov/newsroom/fact-sheets/medicare-telemedicine-health-care-provider-fact-sheet
Christensen, C., & Raynor, M. (2003). The Innovator's Solution: Creating and sustaining successful growth. Harvard Business Review Press. https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=Fwasy8izQIEC
Christensen, C. M. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Harvard Business Review Press.
Christensen, C. M. (2006). The Ongoing Process of Building a Theory of Disruption. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(1), 39-55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2005.00180.x
Christensen, C. M., Bohmer, R., & Kenagy, J. (2000). Will Disruptive Innovations Cure Health Care? Harvard business review, 78(5), 102-112, 199. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11143147
Christensen, H., Griffiths, K. M., & Jorm, A. F. (2004). Delivering Interventions for Depression by Using the Internet: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 328(7434), 265. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.37945.566632.EE
Cook, J. E., & Doyle, C. (2002). Working Alliance in Online Therapy as Compared to Face-to-face Therapy: Preliminary results. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 5(2), 95-105. https://doi.org/10.1089/109493102753770480
Cukrowicz, K. C., & Joiner, T. E. (2007). Computer-based Intervention for Anxious and Depressive Symptoms in a Non-clinical Population. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(5), 677-693. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9094-x
Dielman, M., Drude, K., Ellenwood, A., Heinlen, K., Imar, T., Lichstein, M., & Asch, P. (2009). Telepsychology Guidelines. O. P. Association.
Eisenmann, T., Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. W. (2006). Strategies for Two-sided Markets. Harvard business review, 84(10), 92.
Emmelkamp, P. M. (2005). Technological Innovations in Clinical Assessment and Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(6), 336-343. https://doi.org/10.1159/000087780
Farvolden, P., McBride, C., Bagby, R. M., & Ravitz, P. (2003). A Web-based Screening Instrument for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care. J Med Internet Res, 5(3), e23, Article e23. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5.3.e23
Gould, M. S., Munfakh, J. L., Lubell, K., Kleinman, M., & Parker, S. (2002). Seeking Help from the Internet During Adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(10), 1182-1189. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200210000-00007
Grady, J. (2014). CE: Telehealth: A case study in disruptive innovation. American Journal of Nursing, 114(4), 38-45; test 46-37. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000445682.52553.89
Huang, H.-Y. (2013). Psycho-boom: The rise of psychotherapy in contemporary urban China Harvard University]. Cambridge. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11169799
Hwang, J., & Christensen, C. M. (2008). Disruptive Innovation in Health Care Delivery: A framework for business-model innovation. Health Affairs, 27(5), 1329-1335. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.5.1329
Kessler, D., Lewis, G., Kaur, S., Wiles, N., King, M., Weich, S., Sharp, D. J., Araya, R., Hollinghurst, S., & Peters, T. J. (2009). Therapist-delivered Internet Psychotherapy for Depression in Primary Care: A randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 374(9690), 628-634. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61257-5
Klein, B., & Richards, J. C. (2001). A Brief Internet-based Treatment for Panic Disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29(1), 113-117. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1352465801001138
Lange, A., Rietdijk, D., Hudcovicova, M., van de Ven, J. P., Schrieken, B., & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2003). Interapy: A controlled randomized trial of the standardized treatment of posttraumatic stress through the internet. J Consult Clin Psychol, 71(5), 901-909. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.5.901
Lange, A., van de Ven, J.-P., Schrieken, B., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2001). Interapy. Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Through the Internet: A controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 32(2), 73-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7916(01)00023-4
Larsson, P., Loewenthal, D., & Brooks, O. (2012). Counselling Psychology and Schizophrenia: A critical discursive account. Counselling Psychology, 25(1), 31-47.
Levina, M. (2016). Disrupt or Die: Mobile health and disruptive innovation as body politics. Television & New Media, 18(6), 548-564. https://doi.org/10.1177/1527476416680451
Litz, B. T., Williams, L., Wang, J., Bryant, R., & Engel, C. C. (2004). A Therapist-assisted Internet Self-Help Program for Traumatic Stress. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(6), 628-634. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.35.6.628
Lovejoy, T. I., Demireva, P. D., Grayson, J. L., & McNamara, J. R. (2009). Advancing the Practice of Online Psychotherapy: An application of Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46(1), 112-124. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015153
Luchetta, G. (2012). Is the Google Platform a Two-sided Market? 23rd European Regional ITS Conference, Vienna 2012 60367.
Magaletta, P. R., Fagan, T. J., & Ax, R. K. (1998). Advancing Psychology Services Through Telehealth in the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29(6), 543-548. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.29.6.543
[Record #5535 is using a reference type undefined in this output style.]
Markides, C. (2006). Disruptive Innovation: In need of better theory*. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(1), 19-25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2005.00177.x
Martínez-Vergara, S. J., & Valls-Pasola, J. (2020). Clarifying the Disruptive Innovation Puzzle: A critical review. European Journal of Innovation Management, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). https://doi.org/10.1108/ejim-07-2019-0198
McDonnell, D., Rooney, B., & Flood, C. (2013). Attitudes to Computerised Psychotherapy: A survey of psychotherapists. In Cyberpsychology and New Media (pp. 190-202). Psychology Press.
Miclea, M., Miclea, S., Ciuca, A. M., & Budau, O. (2010). Computer-mediated Psychotherapy. Present and Prospects. A Developer Perspective. Cognition, Brain, Behavior, 14(3), 185.
Murphy, C. A., Coover, D., & Owen, S. V. (2016). Development and Validation of the Computer Self-efficacy Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 49(4), 893-899. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316448904900412
Nagy, D., Schuessler, J., & Dubinsky, A. (2016). Defining and Identifying Disruptive Innovations. Industrial Marketing Management, 57, 119-126.
Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. John Wiley & Sons.
Parker, G., Van Alstyne, M., & Choudary, S. P. (2016). Platform Revolution: How networked markets are transforming the economy - and how to make them work for you (First edition. ed.). W.W. Norton and Company. http://pmt-eu.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/openurl/44LSE/44LSE_services_page?u.ignore_date_coverage=true&rft.mms_id=99149059555602021
Perle, J. G., Langsam, L. C., & Nierenberg, B. (2011). Controversy Clarified: An updated review of clinical psychology and tele-health. Clin Psychol Rev, 31(8), 1247-1258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2011.08.003
Perle, J. G., Langsam, L. C., Randel, A., Lutchman, S., Levine, A. B., Odland, A. P., Nierenberg, B., & Marker, C. D. (2013). Attitudes Toward Psychological Telehealth: Current and Future Clinical Psychologists' Opinions of Internet-Based Interventions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 100-113. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21912
Petzold, N., Landinez, L., & Baaken, T. (2019). Disruptive Innovation from a Process view: A systematic literature review. Creativity and Innovation Management, 28(2), 157-174. https://doi.org/10.1111/caim.12313
Proudfoot, J. G. (2004). Computer-based Treatment for Anxiety and Depression: Is it feasible? Is it effective? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 28(3), 353-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.03.008
Richards, D., & Vigano, N. (2013). Online Counseling: A narrative and critical review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(9), 994-1011. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21974
Rochet, J.-C., & Tirole, J. (2003). Platform Competition in Two-sided Markets. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1(4), 990-1029. https://doi.org/10.1162/154247603322493212 %J Journal of the European Economic Association
Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Swendeman, D., & Chorpita, B. F. (2012). Disruptive Innovations for Designing and Diffusing Evidence-based Interventions. American Psychologist, 67(6), 463-476. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028180
Schmidt, G. M., & Druehl, C. T. (2008). When Is a Disruptive Innovation Disruptive? Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25(4), 347-369. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2008.00306.x
Schumpeter, J. A. (1942). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Journal of Economic Literature, 20, 1463.
Schwamm, L. H. (2014). Telehealth: Seven strategies to successfully implement disruptive technology and transform health care. Health Affairs, 33(2), 200-206. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2013.1021
Si, S., & Chen, H. (2020). A Literature Review of Disruptive Innovation: What it is, how it works and where it goes. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 56, Article 101568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jengtecman.2020.101568
Simon, G. E., & Ludman, E. J. (2009). It's Time for Disruptive Innovation in Psychotherapy. The Lancet, 374(9690), 594-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61415-X
Smith, M. D. (2007). Disruptive Innovation: Can Health Care Learn From Other Industries? A Conversation With Clayton M. Christensen: When the conditions are right, a new business model can find a place in the market and increase consumers' options for health care. Health Affairs, 26(Suppl2), w288-w295.
Sounderajah, V., Patel, V., Varatharajan, L., Harling, L., Normahani, P., Symons, J., Barlow, J., Darzi, A., & Ashrafian, H. (2020). Are Disruptive Innovations Recognised in the Healthcare Literature? A systematic review. BMJ, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjinnov-2020-000424 %J BMJ Innovations
Suler, J. (2004). The Online Disinhibition Effect. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(3), 321-326. https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931041291295
Swinton, J. J., Robinson, W. D., & Bischoff, R. J. (2009). Telehealth and Rural Depression: Physician and patient perspectives. Families, Systems, & Health, 27(2), 172-182. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016014
Thomas, N., Foley, F., Lindblom, K., & Lee, S. (2017). Are people with severe mental illness ready for online interventions? Access and use of the Internet in Australian mental health service users. Australasian Psychiatry, 25(3), 257-261.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, S., Transportation. Subcommittee on Science, T., & Space. (2004). E-health and consumer empowerment : how consumers can use technology today and in the future to improve their health : hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, first session, July 23, 2001. U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b5182868
Wade, S. L., Wolfe, C. R., & Pestian, J. P. (2004). A Web-based Family Problem-solving Intervention for Families of Children with Traumatic Brain Injury. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(2), 261-269. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03195572
Wahass, S. H. (2005). The Role of Psychologists in Health Care Delivery. Journal of Family & Community Medicine, 12(2), 63-70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23012077
心理師執行通訊心理諮商業務核准作業參考原則, (2020) 108 年11 月29 日衛部醫字第1081671409 號函頒.
王智弘. (2019). 國際與本土、變遷與因應:網路諮商的本土發展. 本土諮商心理學學刊, 10(4), v i - x v i.
台灣輔導與諮商學會. (2020). 台灣輔導與諮商學會簡介. Retrieved 2020/11/29 from http://www.guidance.org.tw/intro.html
台灣輔導與諮商學會諮商專業倫理守則, (2001). http://www.guidance.org.tw/ethic_001.html
平安好醫生. (2020). 關於我們. http://www.pagd.net/allPage/aboutUs/37?lang=ZH_CN
平安健康醫療科技有限公司. (2020). 2019年度報告.
百度百科. 國家二級心理諮詢師. Retrieved 2020/12/1 from https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%9B%BD%E5%AE%B6%E4%BA%8C%E7%BA%A7%E5%BF%83%E7%90%86%E5%92%A8%E8%AF%A2%E5%B8%88
何宇軒. (2020). 昂貴的精神健康:付出資源或付出代價?心理諮商究竟能否納入健保?. Retrieved 2020/11/29 from https://rightplus.org/2020/09/09/mental-health-2/
知乎. (2019). 如何看待簡單心理大幅度提高心理諮詢抽成比例?. Retrieved 2020/12/2 from https://www.zhihu.com/question/359346745?utm_source=wechat_session
社團法人中華民國諮商心理師公會全國聯合會. (2014). 103 年 8 月 16 日第二屆第七次理監事聯席會議重要記事. 社團法人中華民國諮商心理師公會全國聯合會電子通訊, 5.
社團法人國際生命線台灣總會. (2020). 本會簡介. Retrieved 2020/11/30 from http://www.life1995.org.tw/content.asp?id=14
唐鳳, & 彭筱婷. (2020, 2020/1/9). 商周專欄:心難過?線上諮商時代來臨. Retrieved 2020/11/30 from https://pdis.nat.gov.tw/zh-TW/blog/心難過-線上諮商時代來臨/
財團法人張老師基金會. (2020). 認識義務張老師. Retrieved 2020/11/30 from http://www.1980.org.tw/web3-20101110/volunteer.html
張玉鉉. (2020). 醫療照護》線上解憂破萬人 連結線上線下資源 鳴醫降低心理諮商門檻 遠端擁抱你不能說的痛. 今周刊, 1241.
陳思宇. (2018). 中國醫改新標準!遠距醫療、「互聯網醫院」診療將受惠. 環球生技月刊.
陳恒順. (2020). 遠距醫療與遠距健康照護法律管制之探討 國立政治大學]. 台北市. https://hdl.handle.net/11296/tcf8af
陳添府. (2019). "互聯網+醫療”企業商業模式研究 重慶師范大学]. 重慶.
陳勛. (2019). 醫師親自診察義務於醫學倫理及法律之適用 國立政治大學]. 台北市. https://hdl.handle.net/11296/m92a2k
趙旭東, & 黄宣穎. (2018). 心理治療的中國故事: 精神科醫生的見聞和人類學家的觀察. 心理學通讯(2), 4.
遠距抱抱. (2020). Farhugs遠距抱抱首頁. Retrieved 2020/12/1 from https://www.farhugs.com/
廣告企劃製作. (2020). 鳴醫照顧你「心」情 讓社會、企業、醫事單位都少不了他. 今周刊.
盧亞蘭. (2020, 2020/10/26). 當法規跟不上產業,那科技新創該如何與政府交涉?. 科技報橘.
謝懿. (2019, 2019/10/30). 數位醫療從行為開始. 「智慧照護在城鄉」研討會, 台北市.
簡單心理. (2018). 簡單⼼理:只提供⾼質量的⼼理服務. Retrieved 2020/12/1 from https://jdxl-file.jdxlt.com/uploads/244e8590b3fe4267b08d401796e57f7b.pdf
簡單心理. (2020). 簡單心理首頁. Retrieved 2020/12/1 from https://www.jiandanxinli.com/
簡單心理, & 北京大學心理諮詢與治療中心. (2016). 2016心理健康認知度與心理諮詢行業调查報告. https://jdxl-file.jdxlt.com/uploads/report2016.pdf
 
 
 
 
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
* *