帳號:guest(3.238.250.105)          離開系統
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  

詳目顯示

以作者查詢圖書館館藏以作者查詢臺灣博碩士以作者查詢全國書目勘誤回報
作者(中):楊一逵
作者(英):Yang, I - Kwei
論文名稱(中):中國對漠南非洲對外援助的修辭與現實
論文名稱(英):Rhetoric and Reality of China’s Foreign Aid toward Sub-Saharan Africa
指導教授(中):姜家雄
指導教授(英):Chiang, Chia-Hsiung
口試委員:戴萬欽
王高成
袁易
陳純一
姜家雄
口試委員(外文):Tai, Wan-Chin
Wang, Kao-Cheng
Yuan, I
Chen, Chun-I
Chiang, Chia-Hsiung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交學系
出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:314
中文關鍵詞:中國的對外援助修辭與現實新殖民主義債務陷阱
英文關鍵詞:China’s Foreign AidRhetoric and RealtyNeo-ColonialismDebt Traps
Doi Url:http://doi.org/10.6814/NCCU201901212
相關次數:
  • 推薦推薦:0
  • 點閱點閱:76
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • gshot_favorites title msg收藏:0
近年來,中華人民共和國(以下簡稱「中國」)對漠南非洲(Sub-Saharan Africa)之對外援助已成各方批判焦點。某些學者與專家認為,中國為了奪取漠南非洲的自然資源,羅織債務陷阱 (debt traps),並運作帶有新殖民主義(Neo-colonialism)色彩之外援,以其不透明的金融援助,阻礙目標國對「良善治理」(Good Governance)的追求,進而威脅國際社會利益。此外,西方政治領導人論及中國之外援時,修辭上常以「掠奪性貸款之行為」(predatory loan practices)、「不透明協議」(opaque agreements)與「戰略性地利用債務」(strategic use of debt)標籤化中國的行為。
本文首要釐清,究竟上述觀點與針對現狀之描述是否真實且客觀?為檢驗中國漠南非洲外援行為相關文獻之批判修辭是否與現實間存在差距,作者試圖透過1950年代至2010年代中國外援之規範性指南(normative guidance),並爬梳中國外援制度與機構之變遷,進一步探析中國的對外援助是否即屬新殖民主義行為與債務陷阱。透過漠南非洲之區域案例進行研究,結合統計數據、資料彙整與過程演變之追蹤,區分批判中國外援觀點中的修辭與現實。研究發現,自1980年代以降,經濟利益便持續驅動著中國對外援助行為。隨著1994年援外優惠貸款政策之推行,中國的外援模式逐步轉型為援助、貿易及投資─三位一體的集成,成為中國企業在海外承攬援助項目之催化劑。鑒於中國與漠南非洲國家間存在著互補性,以及雙方合作過程中非方並未喪失國家自主權(country ownership),中國的外援係新殖民主義的說法並不符實。另外,中國以對外援助製造債務陷阱的觀點亦不符現實之判斷。
The People’s Republic of China’s (hereafter referred to as China) foreign aid has become a lightning rod for criticism in recent years. Scholars and commentators are claiming that China is threating the interests of international community by exploiting Sub-Saharan Africa’s natural resources, providing rogue aid, setting up debt traps, practicing neo-colonial agenda, and hindering the spread of good governance via China’s opaque finance of aid. Moreover, Western political leaders are keen to rhetorically tag labels of “predatory loan practices,” “opaque agreements,” and “strategic use of debt” on the patterns of Chinese aid behaviors.
However, does the above claims provide a fair and authentic interpretation of reality? In order to figure out whether there is a gap between the rhetoric and reality of the scholarships concerning China’s foreign aid behaviors, this dissertation suggests to deconstruct the Chinese aid by engaging the ideational structure of normative guidance and the material structure of institutional mechanism of Chinese aid from the 1950s to the 2010s and to further ascertain whether China’s foreign aid is a form of Neo-Colonialism and a debt-trap. By incorporating data, statistics and process tracing, the Sub-Saharan Africa would be highlighted as a regional case study to separate the rhetoric from the reality. The author finds that China’s foreign aid has been driven by economic incentives since the 1980s. With the launch of China’s concessional loan policy in 1994, China’s foreign aid has turned into a trinity of aid, trade and investment, acting as a catalyst for Chinese enterprises’ contracting aid projects abroad. Given the existence of Sino-Africa complementarities and African governments’ country ownership, the claims of China’s neo-colonial aid projects are not reality. Moreover, the alleged Chinese debt traps of aid have also been misdiagnosed.
Table of Contents


Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 2
1.1.1 The Theories of Foreign Aid 4
1.1.2 The Question of ODA’s Effectiveness 8
1.1.3 China is a Rising Heavyweight Provider of Foreign Aid 10
1.1.4 China is a Different Aid Provider 11
1.1.5 China is a Controversial Aid Provider 14
1.2 Literature Review 17
1.2.1 The Incentives of Chinese Aid 17
1.2.2 The Impact of Chinese Aid in the SSA 23
1.2.3 The Positive Literature of Chinese Aid 26
1.2.4 Evaluation and Research Questions 30
1.3 Methodology 32
1.3.1 Document Analysis 32
1.3.2 Historical Analysis 32
1.3.3 Comparative Analysis 33
1.3.4 Case Study 33
1.3.5 Data Sources 35
1.3.6 Scope of Research 37
1.4 Chapter Outlining 37


Chapter Two: Contextualizing the Normative Guidance of Chinese Aid 41
2.1 Introduction 41
2.2 Normative Guidance of Chinese Aid, 1950-1977 43
2.2.1 Socialist Internationalism 44
2.2.2 The Third Word Ideology 47
2.2.3 The Eight Principles for Economic Aid and Technical Assistance in 1964 49
2.2.4 Revolutionary Pragmatism 54
2.2.5 Evaluation: Foreign Aid Served for Diplomacy from 1950 to 1977 56
2.3 Normative Guidance of Chinese Aid, 1978-2000 60
2.3.1 Prioritizing the Economic Development 60
2.3.2 Zhao Ziyang’s Four Principles in 1982 63
2.3.3. Wu Yi’s Grand Strategy of Economy and Trade in 1994 66
2.3.4 The Going Global Strategy 69
2.3.5 Evaluation: Foreign Aid Served for Economic Development from 1978 to 2000 71
2.4 Normative Guidance of Chinese Aid, 2000-2017 78
2.4.1 Peaceful Development and Aid Relations 79
2.4.2 Selected FOCAC Guidance of Chinese Aid 82
2.4.3 Evaluation: China’s Other Official Flow (OOF) was on a Surge from 2000 to 2017 88
2.5 Summary 93


Chapter Three: Investigating China’s Institutional Mechanism of Foreign Aid 97
3.1 Introduction 97
3.2 China’s Institutional Mechanism of Foreign Aid, 1950-1977 99
3.2.1 State Planning Committee and Ministry of Foreign Trade in the 1950s 99
3.2.2 The General Bureau for Economic Relations with Foreign Countries, 1961 100
3.2.3 Commission for Foreign Economic Relations, 1964
101
3.2.4 The Chinese Aid Delivery Mechanism, 1950-1970
102
3.2.5 Evaluation: State Planning Commission’s Top-Down Command on Aid Projects 104
3.2.6 Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations, 1970
105
3.2.7 The Chinese Aid Delivery Mechanism in the 1970s
107
3.2.8 Evaluation: The gradual retreat of the State Planning Commission 109
3.3 China’s Institutional Mechanism of Foreign Aid, 1978-2000 111
3.3.1 The Ministry of Foreign Economic Cooperation and Trade in 1982 112
3.3.2 The Chinese Aid Delivery Mechanism in the 1980s
113
3.3.3 Evaluation: Separating the Government from the Functions of Undertaking Agencies of Foreign Aid
117
3.3.4 Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation in 1993 119
3.3.5 The Chinese Aid Delivery Mechanism in the 1990s
121
3.3.6 Evaluation: Chinese Enterprises become the Chief Contracting Actors of Foreign Aid Implementation
124
3.4 China’s Institutional Mechanism of Foreign Aid, 2000-2018 128
3.4.1 The Leading Role of MOFCOM and Its Five Key Agencies 129
3.4.2 The Multi-Level Institution of FOCAC
133
3.4.3 Establishing a Top-Level Coordinating Committee for Efficiency 135
3.4.4 First Ministry-Level Regulation of Foreign Aid
136
3.4.5 Establishing the CIDCA in 2018 137
3.4.6 Evaluation: Who’s in the Driver’s Seat of Aid Implementation? 138
3.5 Summary 139
3.5.1 The Ministry of Commerce and Its Predecessors Have Taken the Lead in Aid Implementation 140
3.5.2 To Delegate an Aid Project is not a Political Command, but a Contract 141
3.5.3 Legal Person Enterprises are Rational Actors Aiming at Profits 142
3.5.4 Economic Development still Prevails 142


Chapter Four: Is China’s Foreign Aid a Form of Neo-Colonialism? Rhetoric and Reality 145
4.1 Introduction 145
4.2 Defining Neo-Colonialism 147
4.3 The Workflow of Chinese Aid Project 149
4.3.1 Contemporary Workflow of Chinese Aid is embedded in Concessional Loan Policy 150
4.3.2 The Workflow of Chinese Aid 157
4.3.3 Evaluation: Unveiling the Country Ownership 160
4.4 Exploitation or Complementation? 166
4.4.1 The Complementarities 166
4.4.2 Evaluation: Aid for Complementarities 174
4.5 Multilateral Cooperation of Chinese Aid is on the Rise 175
4.5.1 A Multilateral Turn of Chinese Aid to SSA 176
4.5.2 Trilateral Cooperation is on the Rise 180
4.5.3 Evaluation: A Multilateral Turn of Chinese Aid 182
4.6 Summary 184

Chapter Five: Is China’s Foreign Aid a Debt Trap? Rhetoric and Reality 187
5.1 Introduction 187
5.2 Deconstructing the Chinese Loan 191
5.2.1 The Inauguration of China’s Loan Policy in 1995
192
5.2.2 China’s Loan Provision Aimed at Promoting Overseas Chinese Contracts, not Debt Traps 192
5.2.3 China’s Economically Driven Loan Policy is appropriated from the Developed Countries 194
5.2.4 Indebted Aid Recipients Do Not Serve the Interests of the Contracting Chinese Enterprises 198
5.2.5 Using Commodity-Backed Loan to Alleviate the Debt Stress 199
5.3 Assessing China’s Grants, Debt Cancellation and Loans
204
5.3.1 The Visible Volume of China’s Aid Finance from FOCAC 2000 to 2018 205
5.3.2 The Overestimated Chinese Loan: A Case of the Kiel Institute’s Assessment 214
5.3.3 How Much Overseas Loan does China Provide? 219
5.4 Who Owns Africa’s Debt? 224
5.4.1 The Sub-Saharan Africa’s Debt Burden 224
5.4.2 The Creditors’ Share 226
5.5 Accessing Top African Borrowers of Chinese Loans and Their Indebted Conditions 228
5.5.1 The Top 10 African Borrowers of Chinese Loans 228
5.5.2 Analyzing the Indebted Situation of the Top 10 African Borrowers 229
5.6 Reconsidering the Alleged Chinese Debt Trap in the SSA 233
5.6.1 Who are the Victims of Chinese Debt Traps in the SSA? 233
5.6.2 Is China Setting up a Debt Trap in the SSA? 235
5.7 If Not Debt Trap, What Else? 241
5.7.1 Commerce is More Important than Resources 242
5.7.2 The Enlarging Sino-Africa Exports and Imports 243
5.7.3 A Stable Growth of China’s Investment to the SSA
246
5.8 Summary 249


Chapter Six: Conclusion 253
6.1 Major Findings 253
6.1.1 Difference between China’s ODA and OOF 253
6.1.2 China’s Foreign Aid Pattern is not an Chinese Invention 254
6.1.3 Wu Yi’s Concessional Loan Policy was the Turning Point 256
6.1.4 ODA aimed at Diplomatic Interests while OOF aimed at Economic Benefits 257
6.1.5 The Significance of the Ministry of Commerce in China’s Foreign Aid 258
6.1.6 China’s Foreign Aid is Not a Form of Neo-Colonialism 259
6.1.7 The Chinese Debt-Trap Narrative is Not a Reality
260
6.2 Significance of Research 262
6.3 Limitations 265
6.4 Future Research 266
6.4.1 The Sino-African Cooperation of ICTs 266
6.4.2 BRI and the SSA 267
6.4.3 The Chinese Founded Special Economic Zones in SSA
268
6.4.4 The Sino-Africa Human Resource Cooperation 270


Bibliography 273
English Language 273
Chinese Language 309
Bibliography
English Language
Books
Abdelal, Rawi and Kirshner, Jonathan. “Strategy, Economic Relations and the Definition of National Interests.” In Power and the Purse: Economic Statecraft, Interdependence and National Security. Edited by Jean-Marc F. Blanchard, Edward D. Mansfield, Norrin M. Ripsman. London: Routledge, 2000.
Alden, Chris. China in Africa: Partner, Competitor or Hegemon? London: Zed Books, 2007.
Anghelov, S. Socialist Internationalism: Theory and Practice of International Relations of a New Type. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982.
Babiracki, Patryk and Austin Jersild. “Editors’ Introduction.” In Internationalism in the Cold War: Exploring the Second World. Edited by Patryk Babiracki and Austin Jersild. Switzerland: Springer Nature, 2016.
Bernstein, Thomas P. and Hua-Yu Li. China Learns from the Soviet Union, 1949-present. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2010.
Bräutigam, Deborah. China, Africa and the International Aid Architecture. Tunis: African Development Bank, 2010.
Brautigam, Deborah. The Dragon’s Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Bodomo, Adams. 2018. “Is China colonizing Africa?” pp. 120-132. In Global Economic Governance and Human Development. Edited by Simone Raudino and Arlo Poletti. Abingdon: Routledge, 2018.
Carmody, Pádraig. The New Scramble for Africa. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2011.
CCCPC Party Literature Research Office. Compilation of Important Documents since the Third Plenary Session. Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 1982.
Chen, Jianfu. From Administrative Authorisation to Private Law: A Comparative Perspective of the Developing Civil Law in the People's Republic of China. Berlin: Springer, 1994.
Chenga, Zhangxi and Ian Taylor. China's Aid to Africa Does Friendship Really Matter? London: Routledge, 2017.
Copper, John Franklin. China's Foreign Aid: An Instrument of Peking’s Foreign Policy. Lanham: Lexington Books, 1976.
Corkin, Lucy. Uncovering African agency: Angola’s management of China’s credit lines. London: Routledge, 2016.
Daoudi, M.S. and M. S. Dajani. Economic Sanctions: Ideals and Experience. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983.
Dijkstra, A. Geske. The Impact of International Debt Relief. New York: Routledge, 2008.
Fieldhouse, David Kenneth. Black Africa 1945-1980: Economic Decolonization and Arrested Development. New York: Routledge, 2011.
Foster, Vivien, William Butterfield, Chuan Chen and Nataliya Pushak. Building Bridges: China’s Growing Role as Infrastructure Financier for Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: The World Bank, 2009.
Halper, Stefan. The Beijing Consensus: How China’s Authoritarian Model Will Dominate the Twenty-First Century. New York: Basic Books, 2010.
Hirschman, Albert O. National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1945.
Kim, Samuel S. The Third World in Chinese World Policy. Princeton, N.J.: Center of International Studies, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, 1989.
Kirshner, Jonathan. “The Consequences of China’s Economic Rise for Sino-U.S. Relations: Rivalry, Political Conflict, and (not) War,” pp. 238-259. In China’s Ascent Power, Security and the Future of International Politics. Edited by Robert S. Ross and Zhu Feng. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008.
Krueger, Anne. Aid and Development. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1989.
Kurlantzick, Joshua. Charm offensive: How China's soft power is transforming the world. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.
Lampton, David M. The Three Faces of Chinese Power: Might, Money, and Minds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008.
Leary, Greg O. The Shaping of Chinese Foreign Policy. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1980.
Li, Anshan, Haifang Liu, Huaqiong Pan, Aiping Zeng and Weping He. FOCAC Twelve Years Later: Achievements, Challenges and the Way Forward. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2012.
Lüthi, Lorenz M. The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold war in the communist world. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2008.
Mao, Tse-tung. On the people’s democratic dictatorship: Soviet Union our best teacher. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1958.
Mao, Tse-tung. Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, Vol. IV. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1961.
Ndembwike, John. Life in Tanzania Today and Since the Sixties. Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town: New Africa Press, 2010.
Nkrumah, Kwame. Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism. New York: International Publishers, 1966.
Ping, Ai. “From Proletarian Internationalism to Mutual Development: China’s Cooperation with Tanzania, 1965-95,” pp. 156-201. In Agencies in Foreign Aid: Comparing China, Sweden and the United States in Tanzania. Edited by Goran Hyden and Rwekaza Mukandala. New York: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1999.
Ping, Wang. “The Chinese View: Reflection of the Long-Term Experiences of Aid Receiving and Giving,” pp. 125-144. In A Study of China’s Foreign Aid: An Asian Perspective. Edited by Yasutami Shimomura and Hideo Ohashi. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Rotberg, Robert I. China into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence. Cambridge: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.
Shimomura, Yasutami. “Nihon no Enjo ga ASEAN no Keizai Hatten ni Oyoboshita Eikyo” (The Impacts of Japan’s Aid to the ASEAN’s Economic Development). In ASEANの経済発展と日本. Edited by Takatoshi Itō et al. Tokyo: Nihon Hyoron-sha, 2004.
South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA). The China–Africa Toolkit: A resource for African policymakers. Braamfontein: South African Institute of International Affairs, 2017.
Taylor, Ian. China’s New Role in Africa. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Pub, 2009.
Taylor, Ian. China and Africa: Engagement and Compromise. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Taylor, Ian. “A challenge to the global liberal order?” pp. 187-199. In Handbook of China’s International Relations. Edited by Shaun Breslin. New York: Routledge, 2010.
U.N. Economic Commission for Africa. Investment Policies and Bilateral Investment Treaties in Africa: Implications for Regional Integration. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, 2016.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. World Investment Report 2018. Geneva: United Nations, 2018.
World Bank. IDA Countries and Non-Concessional Debt: Dealing with the Free-Rider Problem in IDA14 Grant-Recipient and Post-MDRI countries. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2006.
Xiong, Hou. “China’s Foreign Aid and Multilateral Development Organizations,” pp. 49-95. In China’s Foreign Aid: 60 Years in Retrospect. Edited by Hong Zhou. Singapore: Springer Nature, 2017.
Youngman, Frank. Strengthening Africa-China relations: A perspective from Botswana. Stellenbosch: The Centre for Chinese Studies, 2013.
Zhang, Dong Dong. China’s Relations with Japan in an Era of Economic Liberalisation. New York: Nova Science Pub Inc., 1998.
Zhang, Jun. “China’s Aid to Africa,” pp. 97-179. In China’s Foreign Aid: 60 Years in Retrospect. Edited by Hong Zhou. Singapore: Springer Nature, 2017.
Zhang, Xiuping and Bruce P. Corrie, Investing in China and Chinese Investment Abroad. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, 2018.
Zhou, Hong. “China’s Foreign Aid Policy and Mechanisms.” In China’s Foreign Aid: 60 Years in Retrospect. Edited by Hong Zhou. Singapore: Springer Nature, 2017.

Periodicals
Agbebi, Motolani and Petri Virtanen. “Dependency Theory – A Conceptual Lens to Understand China’s Presence in Africa?” Forum for Development Studies. Vol. 44. No. 3 (2017), pp. 429-451.
Alden, Chris. “Red Star, Black Gold,” Review of African Political Economy. Vol. 32, No. 104 (2005), pp. 415-419.
Alves, Ana Chiristina. “China’s ‘win-win’ cooperation: Unpacking the impact of infrastructure-for-resources deals in Africa,” South African Journal of International Affairs. Vol. 20 No.2 (2013), pp. 207-226.
Antwi-Boateng, Osman. “New World Order Neo-Colonialism: A Contextual Comparison of Contemporary China and European,” Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies. Vol.10, No.2 (2017), pp. 177-195.
Bader, Julia. “Propping up dictators? Economic cooperation from China and its impact on authoritarian persistence in party and non‐party regimes,” European Journal of Political Research. Vol. 54, No. 4, (2015), pp. 655-672.
Brautigam, Deborah and Kevin P. Gallagher. “Bartering Globalization: China’s Commodity backed Finance in Africa and Latin America,” Global Policy. Vol. 5 No. 3, (2014), pp. 346-351.
Brautigam, Deborah. “China in Africa: Seven Myths,” Analysis of the Real Elcano Institute (ARI). No. 23, (2011), pp. 1-7.
Cabestan, Jean-Pierre. “Beijing’s ‘Going Out’ Strategy and Belt and Road Initiative in the Sahel: The Case of China’s Growing Presence in Niger,” Journal of Contemporary China. Vol.28 No.118 (2018), pp. 592-613.
Chakrabarty, Malancha. “Ethiopia-China Economic Relations: A Classic Win-Win Situation?” World Review of Political Economy. Vol.7 No.2 (2016), pp. 226-248.
Chen, Zhimin. “Nationalism, Internationalism and Chinese Foreign Policy,” Journal of Contemporary China. Vol.14 No.42 (2005), pp.35-53.
Chin, Gregory and Eric Helleiner. “China as a creditor: a rising financial power?” Journal of International Affairs. Vol.62 No. 1 (2008), pp. 87-102.
De Soysa, Indra and Paul Midford. “Enter The Dragon! An Empirical Analysis of Chinese versus US Arms Transfers to Autocrats and Violators of Human Rights, 1989–2006,” International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 56 No. 4, (2012), pp. 843-856.
Dirlik, Arif. “Mao Zedong Thought and the Third World/Global South,” Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies. Vol.16 No.2, (2014), pp. 233-256.
Dreher, Axel, Andreas Fuchs, Brad Parks, Austin M. Strange, Michael J. Tierney. “Apples and Dragon Fruits: The Determinants of Aid and Other Forms of State Financing from China to Africa,” International Studies Quarterly. Vol.62, No. 1, (2018), pp. 182–194.
Elu, Juliet U. and Gregory N. Price. “Does China transfer productivity enhancing technology to sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from manufacturing firms,” African Development Review. Vol.22 No.2 (2010), pp. 587-598.
Fearon, James D. “Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy and Theories of International Relations,” Annual Review of Political Science. Vol. 1, (1998), pp. 289-313.
Fifield, Russel H. “The Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence,” American Journal of International Law. Vol. 52 No.03, (1958), pp. 504-510.
Harding, Harry. “China: Toward Revolutionary Pragmatism,” Asian Survey. Vol. 11, No. 1, (1971), pp. 51-67.
Heidhues, Franz and Gideon Obare. “Lessons from Structural Adjustment Programmes and their Effects in Africa,” Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture. Vol. 50 No. 1, (2011), pp. 55-64.
Hess, Steve and Richard Aidoo. “Beyond the Rhetoric: Noninterference in China’s African Policy,” African and Asian Studies. No. 9, (2010), pp. 358-363.
Hirono, Miwa, and Shogo Suzuki. “Why Do We Need ‘Myth-Busting’ in the Study of Sino–African Relations?” Journal of Contemporary China. Vol. 23 No. 87, (2014), pp. 443-461.
Hubbard, Paul. “Aiding Transparency: What We Can Learn About China Exim Bank’s Concessional Loans,” Working Paper of Center for Global Development. No. 126 (2007), pp. 1-17.
Igbinoba, Emmanuel. “China, Africa's New Colonial Master?” Global Journal of Management and Business Research. Vol.16 No. 5 (2016), pp. 46-55.
Kidane, Won. “China’s Bilateral Investment Treaties with African States in Comparative Context,” Cornell International Law Journal. Vol. 49 No.1 (2015), pp. 141-177.
Kilama, Eric Gabin. “The Influence of China and Emerging Donors Aid Allocation: A Recipient Perspective,” China Economic Review. No. 38, (2016), pp. 76-77.
Konings, Piet. “China and Africa: Building a Strategic Partnership,” Journal of Developing Societies. Vol. 23 No.3 (2007), pp. 341-367.
Lee, Margaret C. “The 21st century scramble for Africa,” Journal of Contemporary African Studies. Vol. 24, No. 3 (2006), pp. 303-330.
Lumumba-Kasongo, Tukumbi. “China-Africa Relations: A Neo-Imperialism or a Neo-Colonialism? A Reflection,” African and Asian Studies. Vol. 10 No.2-3 (2011), pp.234-266.
Madavo, Callisto Enias. “China and Africa: Opportunities, Challenges and Forging a Way Forward,” Journal of the Washington Institute of China Studies. Vol. 2, No 3, (2007), pp. 1-13.
Manning, Richard. “Will ‘Emerging Donors’ Change the Face of International Cooperation?” Development Policy Review. Vol. 24 No. 4, (2006), pp. 371-385.
Mattlin, Mikael and Matti Nojonen. “Conditionality and Path Dependence in Chinese Lending,” Journal of Contemporary China. Vol. 24 No. 94, (2015), pp. 701-720.
Mengisteab, Kidane and Bernard I. Logan. “Africa’s Debt Crisis: Are Structural Adjustment Programs Relevant?” Africa Development. Vol.16 No.1, (1991), pp. 95-113.
Milkias, Paulos. “China and Post-Millennium African Economic Development Strategy as a Non-Zero-Sum-Game,” International Journal of African Development. Vol.4 No.1, (2016), pp. 19-40.
Muldoon, Jr. James P. “The Impact of 9/11 on Chinese Regional Security Cooperation,” China Brief. Vol. 4, Issue 12 (2004), https://jamestown.org/program/the-impact-of-911-on-chinese-regional-security-cooperation/
Mwase, Ngila. “The Tanzania-Zambia Railway: The Chinese Loan and the Pre-Investment Analysis Revisited,” The Journal of Modern African Studies. Vol. 21, No. 3 (1983), pp. 535-543.
Naidu, Sanusha and Martyn Davies. “China Fuels its Future with Africa’s Riches,” South African Journal of International Affairs. Vol.13 No. 2, (2006), pp. 69–83.
Naidu, Sanusha. “The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC): What does the future hold?” China Report. Vol.43, No. 3, (2007), pp. 238-296.
Naím, Moisès. “Rogue Aid,” Foreign Policy. No. 159, 2007, pp. 95-96.
Nathan, Laurie. “African Solutions to African Problems: South Africa’s Foreign Policy,” WeltTrends. No. 92, 2013, pp. 48-55.
Niambi, Nathanaël T. “China in Africa: Debtbook Diplomacy?” Open Journal of Political Science. No. 9 (2019), pp. 220-242.
Odoom, Isaac. “Dam In, Cocoa Out; Pipes In, Oil Out: China’s Engagement in Ghana’s Energy Sector,” Journal of Asian and African Studies. Vol.52 No.5, (2015), pp. 598-620.
Perkins, Dwight H. “Economic Growth in China and the Cultural Revolution (1960-April 1967),” The China Quarterly. Vol.30, No.33 (1967), pp.37-38.
Prybyla, Jan S. “Communist China’s Economic Relations with Africa 1960-1964,” Asian Survey. Vol.4 No. 11, (1964), pp. 135-1143.
Sautman, Barry and Hairong Yan. “Friends and Interests: China’s Distinctive Links with Africa,” African Studies Review. Vol. 50 No. 3, (2007), pp.75-114.
Strüver, Georg. “What Friends are Made of: Bilateral Linkages and Domestic Drivers of Foreign Policy Alignment with China,” Foreign Policy Analysis. Vol. 12 No. 2, (2016), pp. 170-191.
Strüver, Georg. “International Alignment between Interests and Ideology: The Case of China’s Partnership Diplomacy,” GIGA Working Papers. No. 283 (2016), pp. 1-33.
Taylor, Ian. “China’s Oil Diplomacy in Africa,” International Affairs. Vol.82 No.5, (2006), pp. 937-959.
Taylor, Ian. “Mainland China–Angola relations: Moving from debacle to détente,” Issues Studies. (1997), Vol. 33 No. 9, pp.64-81.
Teh-Chang Lin. “Beijing’s Foreign Aid Policy in the 1990s: Continuity and Change,” Issues and Studies. Vol.32 No.1, (1996) pp. 32-56.
Tugendhat, Henry and Dawit Alemu. “Chinese Agricultural Training Courses for African Officials: Between Power and Partnerships,” World Development. Vol. 81 (2016), pp. 1-11.
Tull, Denis. “China’s engagement in Africa: Scope, significance and consequences,” Journal of Modern African Studies. Vol. 44 No. 3 (2006), pp. 459–479.
Vickers, Brenda. “Africa and the rising powers: bargaining for the marginalized many,” International Affairs. Vol.89 No.3, (2013), pp. 673-693.
Wagner, R. Harrison. “Economic interdependence, bargaining power, and political influence,” International Organization. Vo. 42 No. 3, (1998), pp. 461-83.
Woods, Ngaire. “Whose Aid? Whose Influence? China, Emerging Donors and the Silent Revolution in Development Assistance,” International Affairs. Vol. 84 No. 6 (2008), pp. 1205-1221.
Yan, Xuetong. “Sino-African Relations in the 1990s,” CSIS Africa Notes. No. 84, (1988), pp. 1-5.
Yi, Xiaoxiong. “Chinese Foreign Policy in Transition: Understanding China’s Peaceful Development,” The Journal of East Asian Affairs. Vol. 19, No. 1, (2005), pp. 74-112.
Yu, George T. “Working on the Railroad: China and the Tanzania-Zambia Railway,” Asian Survey. Vol. 11 No. 11, (1971), pp. 1101–1117.
Yufan, Hao and Zhai Zhihai. “China's Decision to Enter the Korean War: History Revisited,” The China Quarterly. No. 121, (1990), pp. 94-115.
Zafar, Ali. “The Growing Relationship between China and Sub-Saharan Africa,” World Bank Research Observer. Vol.22 No.1 (2007), pp.103-130.
Zhang, Mengzhong and Marc Holzer. “Chinese Administrative Reforms: A Replica or Derivative of the Western NPM Model?” Chinese Public Administration Review. Vol.8 No.1 (2017), pp. 23-36.

Dissertations
Alves, Ana Cristina. China’s Oil Diplomacy: Comparing Chinese Economic Statecraft in Angola and Brazil. PhD Thesis of London School of Economics, 2011.

Websites
“A new study tracks the surge in Chinese loans to poor countries,” The Economist. Last modified July 13, 2019. https://www.economist.com/finance-and-economics/2019/07/13/a-new-study-tracks-the-surge-in-chinese-loans-to-poor-countries
African Chamber of Commerce. “Niger Inaugurates Hospital Constructed By China,” African Chamber of Commerce. Last modified August 7, 2016. https://afcham-china.org/niger-inaugurates-hospital-constructed-by-china/
African Development Bank Group. “African Economic Outlook 2019,” African Development Bank. Last modified 2019. https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/2019AEO/AEO_2019-EN.pdf
African Development Bank. “African Economic Outlook 2018,” African Development Bank. Last modified January 16, 2018. https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/2018AEO/African_Economic_Outlook_2018_-_EN_Chapter3.pdf
African Union Commission. “Agenda 2063: The Africa We Want,” African Union Commission. Last modified 2015. https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/33126-doc-11_an_overview_of_agenda.pdf
African Union. “Operational phase of the African Continental Free Trade Area is launched at Niger Summit of the African Union,” African Union. Last modified July 7, 2019. https://au.int/en/pressreleases/20190707/operational-phase-african-continental-free-trade-area-launched-niger-summit
Agbleke, Erick. “Behind the Goodwill Aid: China’s Neo-Colonialism in Africa,” International Policy Digest. Last modified 2018. https://intpolicydigest.org/2018/05/08/behind-the-goodwill-aid-china-s-neo-colonialism-in-africa/
Agence France Press. “Say no to China: Anger mounts in Zambia over Beijing's presence,” Sunday Times. Last modified September 23, 2018. https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/africa/2018-09-23-say-no-to-china-anger-mounts-in-zambia-over-beijings-presence/
Agency for International Economic Cooperation. “Forward,” Agency for International Economic Cooperation, http://english.aieco.org/foreword
Andrews, Evan. “How Ping-Pong Diplomacy Thawed the Cold War,” HISTORY. Last modified October 19, 2018. https://www.history.com/news/ping-pong-diplomacy
AidData. “China issues $100 million USD loan for Galaxy Backbone ICT Project,” Aid, China, and Growth: Evidence from a New Global Development Finance Dataset. https://china.aiddata.org/projects/30340
AidData’s Global Chinese Official Finance Dataset. “China’s Global Development Footprint,” Aiddata. https://www.aiddata.org/china-official-finance
Atkins, Lucas, Deborah Brautigam, Yunnan Chen and Jyhjong Hwang. “China-Africa Economic Bulletin No.1: Challenges of and opportunities from the commodity price slump,” Washington DC: China Africa Research Initiative (CARI), Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, 2017. http://www.sais-cari.org/data-chinese-loans-to-africa
Ayodele, Thompson, and Olusegun Sotola. “China in Africa: An Evaluation of Chinese Investment,” IPPA Working Paper Series, 2014. http://www.ippanigeria.org/articles/China%20Africa%20relation_Workingpaper_final.pdf
Ayodele, Thompson. “Misconceptions about China’s Interest in Africa,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. Last modified October 20, 2015. https://www.georgetownjournalofinternationalaffairs.org/online-edition/misconceptions-about-chinas-interest-in-africa
“Bay of Pigs Invasion,” A&E Television Networks. Last modified June 6, 2019. https://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/bay-of-pigs-invasion
Beard, Lucas. “Choosing China: Ghana’s $3 Billion Loan Decision,” Leadership Academy for Development (LAD) Stanford University. Last modified 2018. https://fsi.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/ghana_loan.pdf
Beattie, Alan and Eoin Callan. “China Lends Where the World Bank Fears to Tread,” Financial Times. Last modified December 8, 2006. https://www.csjjxx.com/story/001008349/ce
Benner, Thorsten, Jan Gaspers, Marike Ohlberg, Lucrezia Poggetti and Kristin Shikupfer. “Responding to China’s Growing Political Influence in Europe,” Mercator Institute for China Studies. Last modified 2018. https://www.merics.org/sites/default/files/2018-02/GPPi_MERICS_Authoritarian_Advance_2018_1.pdf
Beijing Review. “Communique of the Second Plenary Session of the Ninth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China,” Beijing Review. Last modified June 30, 2010. http://www.bjreview.com.cn/90th/2011-06/30/content_373111.htm
“Biography of Houlin Zhao, ITU Secretary-General,” International Telecommunication Union. https://www.itu.int/en/osg/Pages/biography-zhao.aspx
Bräutigham, Deborah. “China in Africa: What can Western Donors Learn,” Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries. Last modified 2011, https://www.norfund.no/getfile.php/133986-1484571456/Bilder/Publications/Norfund_China_in_Africa.pdf
Brautigam, Deborah and Hwang, Jyhjong. “Eastern Promises: New Data on Chinese Loan in America, 2000 to 2014,” SAIS China-Africa Research Initiative Working Paper Series. Last modified 2016. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5652847de4b033f56d2bdc29/t/58ac91ede6f2e1f64a20d11a/1487704559189/eastern+promises+v4.pdf
Brekkan, Mari Boie. “Japan ends its yen loans to China: A study of the role of ODA in the bilateral relationship,” Department of Cultural Studies and Oriental Languages, University of Oslo. Last modified 2007. https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/24412/oppgave.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Bolton, John R. “Remarks by National Security Advisor Ambassador John R. Bolton on the Trump Administration’s New Africa Strategy,” The White House. Last modified December 13, 2018. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-national-security-advisor-ambassador-john-r-bolton-trump-administrations-new-africa-strategy/
“Bui dam generates $335.7m revenue,” Ghana Web. Last modified December 7, 2017. https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Bui-dam-generates-335-7m-revenue-608901
Caulderwood, Kathleen. “China Is Africa's New Colonial Overlord,” International business Times. Last Modified February 18, 2014. https://www.ibtimes.com/china-africas-new-colonial-overlord-says-famed-primate-researcher-jane-goodall-1556312
Central Intelligence Agency. “Chinese Countertrade: A Carrot or a Stick?” Central Intelligence Agency. Last modified December 30, 1985. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP04T00447R000302350001-1.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency. “Chinese Military and Economic Programs in the Third World: Growing Commercial Emphasis.” Central Intelligence Agency. Last modified May 1, 1984. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP85T00283R000600020004-6.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency. “Foreign Investment in China: Patterns and Prospects.” Central Intelligence Agency. Last modified May 17, 1985. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP85T01058R000201440001-5.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency. “International Trade of Communist China, 1950-65,” General CIA Records. Last modified October 21, 1966. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/cia-rdp79t01049a003300110001-2
Central Intelligence Agency. “Mao’s Red Guard Diplomacy: 1967” Intelligence Report. Last modified June 21, 1968. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/polo-21.pdf
“China-Ghana South-South Cooperation on Renewable Energy Technology Transfer,” UNDP, 2014. https://info.undp.org/docs/pdc/Documents/CHN/ProDoc%20-%2091276.pdf
“China-Zambia South-South Cooperation on Renewable Energy Technology Transfer,” UNDP, 2014. https://info.undp.org/docs/pdc/Documents/ZMB/China%20Zambia%20South%20South%20Renewable%20Energy%20Technology%20Transfer%20Project%20Document.pdf
“China: import of goods from 2007 to 2017,” Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/263646/import-of-goods-to-china/
“China pledges $2bn for developing world.” BBC. Last modified September 21, 2015. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-34372188
“China donated project of reparation of SEYNI KOUNTCHE Stadium in Niger,” China Geo-Engineering Corporation International Ltd. Last modified June 24, 2014. http://www.cgcint.com/index.php/en/subsidiary/africa/niger/139-zdgj/gongcheng/2014-06-24-13-58-24/329-niger5
“China: Debt Cancellation,” Development Reimagined. Last modified April 17, 2019. https://developmentreimagined.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/final-doc-china-debt-cancellation-dr-final.pdf
“China, Denmark, Ghana, Zambia Sign Renewable Energy Technology Transfer Agreement,” T&D World. Last modified August 20, 2014. https://www.tdworld.com/node/30378
“China hits back against infrastructure project claims,” The Australian. Last modified January 10, 2018. https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/china-hits-back-against-infrastructure-project-claims/news-story/207c6a2d162bc00ae5a421ce4c50ef72
“China Lends US$3.3 Billion to Ethio-Djibouti Railway project in the Horn of Africa,” Raillynews. Last modified January 5, 2013. http://www.raillynews.com/2013/china-lends-us3-3-billion-to-ethio-djibouti-railway-project-in-the-horn-of-africa/
“China surpassed the United States as the world’s largest crude oil importer in 2017.” U.S. Energy Information Administration. Last modified February 5, 2018. https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=34812
“Chinese Embassies in Africa,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/zwjg_665342/2490_665344/2493_665350/
Chellaney, Brahma. “China’s Debt-Trap Diplomacy,” Project Syndicate. Last modified January 23, 2017. https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/china-one-belt-one-road-loans-debt-by-brahma-chellaney-2017-01?barrier=accesspaylog
Chen, Wang. “A Vision of China’s Peaceful Development and World Harmony,” The World Forum on China Studies. Last modified November 5, 2010. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan043035.pdf
“Chronology of China-Africa relations.” China Daily. Last modified May 5, 2014. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2014livisitafrica/2014-05/05/content_17483508.htm
Chow, Gregory C. “Economic Planning in China,” CEPS Working Paper No. 219, 2011. https://www.princeton.edu/ceps/workingpapers/219chow.pdf
“CIDCA chairman meets with Laos’ minister of industry and commerce,” China International Development Cooperation Agency. Last modified August 6, 2019. http://en.cidca.gov.cn/latest.html
“CNPC to invest US$5 bil. in Niger's Oil Sector; Pipeline and Refinery Promised,” IHS Markit. Last modified June 5, 2008. https://ihsmarkit.com/country-industry-forecasting.html?ID=106596730
“Clinton warns against ‘new colonialism’ in Africa,” Reuters. Last modified June 11, 2011. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-clinton-africa/clinton-warns-against-new-colonialism-in-africa-idUSTRE75A0RI20110611.
Colagrossi, Mike. “New study uncovers China's massive hidden lending to poor countries,” Big Think. Last modified July 18, 2019. https://bigthink.com/politics-current-affairs/china-loans
“Constitution of the Communist Party of China,” Xinhua. Last modified October 24, 2017. http://www.xinhuanet.com//english/download/Constitution_of_the_Communist_Party_of_China.pdf
Davies, Penny. “China and the End of Poverty in Africa – towards Mutual Benefit?” Diakonia, 2007. http://eurodad.org/uploadedfiles/whats_new/reports/kinarapport_a4.pdf
Davis, Matt. “How China is transforming Africa into the next factory of the world.” Big Think. Last modified August 12, 2018. https://bigthink.com/matt-davis/chinas-growing-influence-in-africa
“Debt Sustainability: Oasis or Mirage?” The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Last modified 2004. https://unctad.org/en/Docs/gdsafrica20041_en.pdf
“Definition of Lumpsum,” The Economic Times, 2019 https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/lumpsum
“Development Aid at a Glance: Statistic by Region, Africa,” Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2018. https://www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance-data/Africa-Development-Aid-at-a-Glance-2018.pdf
“Development aid rises again in 2016,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Last modified April 11, 2017. https://www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance-data/ODA-2016-detailed-summary.pdf
“Development Co-operation of the People’s Republic of China,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/chinas-development-co-operation.htm
“Development finance of countries beyond the DAC,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, https://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm
“Director-General of the Department of African Affairs of the Foreign Ministry Dai Bing Holds Discussion with Journalists of China-Africa Press Center of China International Press Communication Center,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. Last modified April 24, 2018. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjbxw/t1554606.shtml
“Don’t judge Africa for seeking funding from China - President Geingob,” Namibian Broadcasting Corporation. Last modified October 23, 2018. https://www.nbc.na/news/dont-judge-africa-seeking-funding-china-president-geingob.19275
Dreher, Axel, Andreas Fuchs, Bradley Parks, Austin Strange, Michael Tierney. “Aid, China, and Growth: Evidence from a New Global Development Finance Dataset.” AidData Working Paper No. 46. 2017, Williamsburg, VA: AidData. https://www.aiddata.org/publications/aid-china-and-growth-evidence-from-a-new-global-development-finance-dataset
Dupasquier, Chantal and Patrick N. Osakwe. “Foreign Direct Investment in Africa: Performance, Challenges and Responsibilities,” ATPC Work in Progress. No. 21, 2005. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Patrick_Osakwe/publication/223326317_Foreign_direct_investment_in_Africa_Performance_challenges_and_responsibilities/links/5a2d0813a6fdccfbbf876769/Foreign-direct-investment-in-Africa-Performance-challenges-and-responsibilities.pdf?origin=publication_detail
“Ethiopia and China: Looking east,” The Economist Newspaper Limited. Last modified October 21, 2010. https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2010/10/21/looking-east
Ellis, Grace. “10 of the Largest Construction Companies in the World,” Plan Grid Construction Productivity Blog. Last modified May 6, 2019. https://blog.plangrid.com/2019/05/top-10-construction-companies-in-the-world-slideshare/
Enlai, Zhou. “The Chinese Government's Eight Principles for Economic Aid and Technical Assistance to Other Countries,” Wilson Center. Last modified January 15, 1964. https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/121560.pdf
Esselaar, Steve and Lishan Adam. “Understanding what is happening in ICT in Tanzania,” Evidence for ICT Policy Action Policy Paper, 2013. https://researchictafrica.net/publications/Evidence_for_ICT_Policy_Action/Policy_Paper_11_-_Understanding_what_is_happening_in_ICT_in_Tanzania.pdf
Eom, Janet. “China Inc. Becomes China the Builder in Africa,” The Diplomat. Last modified September 29, 2016. https://thediplomat.com/2016/09/china-inc-becomes-china-the-builder-in-africa/
Fang, Li. “China unveils int'l development cooperation agency,” Xinhua. Last modified April 18, 2018. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-04/18/c_137120544.htm
Feigenbaum, Evan A. “Is Coercion the New Normal in China’s Economic Statecraft?” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Last modified July 25, 2017. http://carnegieendowment.org/2017/07/25/is-coercion-new-normal-in-china-s-economic-statecraft-pub-72632
“Final ODA Data for 2005,” OECD Data. https://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/37790990.pdf
“Final ODA data for 2016,” Development Initiatives, 2018. http://devinit.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Final-ODA-data-2016.pdf
Freeman, Lawrence. “Who Owns Africa’s Debt: China or Western Nations & Institutions?” Africa and the World. Last modified July 18, 2018. https://lawrencefreemanafricaandtheworld.com/2018/07/18/who-owns-africas-debt-china-or-western-nations-institutions/
“From G20 Hangzhou Summit to Belt and Road forum, Xi’s global prominence on the rise,” China Daily. Last modified May 18, 2017. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017-05/18/content_29397734.htm
Fosu, Kennedy. “Ghana’s Economic Growth Expected to Be Stronger in 2019, But Diversifying Economy is Crucial,” The World Bank Group. Last modified June 14, 2019. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2019/06/14/ghanas-economic-growth-expected-to-be-stronger-in-2019-but-diversifying-economy-is-crucial
Fuchs, Andreas, and Marina Rudyak. “The Motives of China’s Foreign Aid” http://www.andreas-fuchs.net/uploads/1/9/8/9/19897453/fuchs_rudyak_chinas_aid_motives__website_.pdf
Fukuda‐Parr, Sakiko and Hiroaki Shiga. “Normative Framing of Development Cooperation: Japanese Bilateral Aid between the DAC and Southern Donors,” JICA-RI Working Paper No. 130, JICA Research Institute, 2016. https://www.jica.go.jp/jica-ri/publication/workingpaper/jrft3q00000063lo-att/JICA-RI_WP_No.130.pdf
“Full text: Vision for Maritime Cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative,” Xinhua. Last modified June 20, 2017. http://www.china.org.cn/world/2017-06/20/content_41063286.htm
“Full text of Hu Jintao's report at 18th Party Congress,” Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United States of America. November 27, 2012. http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/zt/18th_CPC_National_Congress_Eng/t992917.htm
Gagliardone, Iginio and Sam Geall. “China in Africa’s media and telecommunications: cooperation, connectivity and control,” Noref Expert Analysis. 2014. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/179376/7880fd6b12b93bdd18eddcbd4f4e207f.pdf
Gaouette, Nicole, Elise Labott, James Griffiths and Ben Westcott. “Pence attacks China on predatory trade, coercion and military aggression.” CNN. Last modified October 4, 2018. https://edition.cnn.com/2018/10/04/politics/pence-china-trump-intl/index.html
Gomes, Ana Maria. “On China's policy and its effects on Africa,” Committee on Development, European Parliament. Last modified March 28, 2008. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+REPORT+A6-2008-0080+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=en
“Guinea: According to the minister of telecoms, the $50 million planned to revive the Sotelgui are not enough.” Ecofin Agency. Last modified October 5, 2017. https://www.ecofinagency.com/telecom/0510-37536-guinea-according-to-the-minister-of-telecoms-the-50-million-planned-to-revive-the-sotelgui-are-not-enough
Hanson, Stephanie. “China, Africa and Oil,” Council on Foreign Relations Report. Last modified June 6, 2008. http://www.marshallfoundation.org/documents/ChinaAfricaEnergy.pdf.
Hess, Steve. “Chinese Leverage and Democratic Backsliding in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Transylvania University. https://wpsa.research.pdx.edu/papers/docs/0%20-%20Chinese%20Leverage%20and%20Democratic%20Backsliding%20in%20SSA.pdf
Horn, Sebastian, Carmen Reinhart and Christoph Trebesch. “China’s Overseas Lending,” KIEL Working Paper No. 2132 (2019). https://www.ifw-kiel.de/fileadmin/Dateiverwaltung/IfW-Publications/Christoph_Trebesch/KWP_2132.pdf
Huawei Technologies Co. “Leading New ICT: Building a Better Smart City, Huawei,” 2016. https://voip-la.com/docs/Huawei-Smart-City-Brochure.pdf
Hurley, John, Scott Morris and Gailyn Portelance. “Examining the Debt Implications of the Belt and Road Initiative from a Policy Perspective,” CGD Policy Paper No. 121. Washington DC: Center for Global Development, 2018. pp. 28-31.
“International DEBT Statistics 2019,” International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1596/IDS2019
“Investment Policy Hub Translate,” UNCTAD. Last modified August 28, 2019, https://investmentpolicy.unctad.org/
Isaksson, Ann-Sofie and Andreas Kotsadam. “Chinese aid and local corruption,” AidData, 2016, http://docs.aiddata.org/ad4/pdfs/wps33_chinese_aid_and_local_corruption.pdf
Jalloh, Abu-Bakarr and Fang Wan. “Resistance growing to Chinese presence in Zambia,” Deutsche Welle. Last modified April 9, 2019. https://www.dw.com/en/resistance-growing-to-chinese-presence-in-zambia/a-47275927
“Japan’s ODA to China by Fiscal Year,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000128001.pdf
Jiabao, Wen. “Speech by H.E. Wen Jiabao at the Opening Ceremony of the 4th Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. Last modified September 10, 2009. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/zflt/eng/dsjbzjhy/zyjh/t627391.htm
Jianxi, Liu. “Chinese model more suitable for Africa: envoy,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. Last modified May 3, 2017. http://www.focac.org/eng/zxxx/t1458133.htm
Jiao, Wu. “President Xi gives speech to Indonesia's parliament,” China Daily. Last modified October 2, 2013. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013xiapec/2013-10/02/content_17007915.htm
Jinping, Xi. “Carry Forward the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence To Build a Better World Through Win-Win Cooperation,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. Last modified July 1, 2014. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjdt_665385/zyjh_665391/t1170143.shtml
Jintao, Hu. “Full text of President Hu’s speech at China-Africa summit,” The State Council of the People's Republic of China. Last modified October 4, 2006. http://www.gov.cn/misc/2006-11/04/content_432652.htm
Jintao, Hu. “Open up New Prospects for A New Type of China-Africa Strategic Partnership,” The State Council of the People’s Republic of China. Last modified July 19, 2012. http://www.gov.cn/english/2012-07/19/content_2187301.htm
Johns Hopkins China-Africa Research Initiative. “China-Africa Annual Trade Data,” China Africa Research Initiative, 2019. http://www.sais-cari.org/data-china-africa-trade
Jubilee Debt Campaign. “Africa’s growing debt crisis: Who is the debt owed to?” Jubilee Debt Campaign UK, 2018. https://jubileedebt.org.uk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Who-is-Africa-debt-owed-to_10.18.pdf
Junbo, Jian. “From capitalism to colonialism,” Asia Times Online. January 4, 2007. https://www.asiatimes.com/%20atimes/%20China/%20IA05Ad01.html
Kitano, Naohiro. “Estimating China’s Foreign Aid Using New Data: 2015-2016 Preliminary Figures-Contribution to AIIB significantly increased China’s aid volume,” JICA Research Institute. Last modified May 31, 2018. https://www.jica.go.jp/jica-ri/publication/other/l75nbg00000puwc6-att/20180531_01.pdf
Kraus, Charles. “Debating the Sino-Japanese Normalization, 1972,” The Wilson Center. Last modified April 3, 2017. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/blog-post/debating-the-sino-japanese-normalization-1972
Larmer, Brook. “Is China the World’s New Colonial Power?” New York Times. Last modified May 2, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/02/magazine/is-china-the-worlds-new-colonial-power.html
Levitt, Tom. “Ethiopia's sesame seed trade with China – a partnership of equals?” Guardian News and Media. Last modified July 10, 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2013/jul/10/ethiopia-sesame-seed-trade-china
Li, Yue fen. “Assessment of South-South Cooperation and the Global Narrative on the Eve of BAPA+40,” South Center Research Paper No. 88, 2018. https://www.southcentre.int/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/RP88_Assessment-of-South-South-Cooperation-and-the-Global-Narrative-on-the-Eve-of-BAPA40_EN-2.pdf
Liao, Jing, Feng Cheng, Asher Harris and Dong Xu. “The new face of China's foreign aid: where do we go from here?” The Lancet. Last modified February 23, 2019. https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2818%2931496-X
Lum, T., H. Fischer, J. Gomez-Granger, and A. Leland. “China’s Foreign Aid Activities in Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia,” Congressional Research Services Report, 2009. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R40361.pdf
Lusaka Times. “Chinese government writes off $22 million debt to ease Zambia’s debt burden,” Lusaka Times. Last modified June 25, 2019. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2019/06/25/chinese-government-writes-off-22-million-debt-to-easy-zambias-debt-burden/
Maasho, Aaron. “Africa should avoid forfeiting sovereignty to China over loans: Tillerson,” Reuters. Last modified March 8, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-africa/africa-should-avoid-forfeiting-sovereignty-to-china-over-loans-tillerson-idUSKCN1GK114
Mardell, Jacob. “Foreign Aid With Chinese Characteristics,” The Diplomat. Last modified August 7, 2018. https://thediplomat.com/2018/08/foreign-aid-with-chinese-characteristics/
Marshall, Andrea. “China's mighty Telecom footprint in Africa,” New Security Learning. Last modified February 14, 2011. http://www.newsecuritylearning.com/index.php/archive/75-chinas-mighty-telecom-footprint-in-africa
“Mbeki warns on China-Africa ties.” BBC. Last modified December 14, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6178897.stm
“Measures for the Administration of Foreign Aid,” United Nations Development Programme. Last modified December 24, 2014. http://www.cn.undp.org/content/china/en/home/library/south-south-cooperation/measures-for-the-administration-of-foreign-aid-.html
Mohan, Giles. “China in Ghana: Easing the Shift from Aid Dependency to Oil Economy?” Real Instituto Elcano, 2010. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/122669/ARI149-2010_Mohan_China_Ghana_Aid_dependency_Oil_Economy.pdf
Moore, William Gyude. “2018 FOCAC: Africa in the New Reality of Reduced Chinese Lending,” Center for Global Development. Last modified August 31, 2018. https://www.cgdev.org/blog/2018-focac-africa-new-reality-reduced-chinese-lending
Moss, Todd and Sarah Rose. “China ExIm Bank and Africa: New Lending, New Challenges” Center for Global Development Notes, 2006. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/116659/file_China_and_Africa.pdf
Moyo, Dambisa. Dead Aid: Why Aid is not Working and How There is a Better Way for Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009.
News Desk. “Huawei Marine commences survey for PEACE submarine cable,” Pakistan Today. Last modified May 4, 2018. https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2018/05/04/huawei-marine-commences-survey-for-peace-submarine-cable/
Nkoana-Mashabane, Maite. “Statement by Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane: Parliamentary Debate on the Central African,” Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of South Africa. Last modified April 13, 2013. http://www.dirco.gov.za/docs/speeches/2013/mash0423.html
Nordén, Anna. “Payment Types and Participation in Payment for Ecosystem Services Programs,” Discussion Paper Series No. 14-11, 2014. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b1df/3508064774bff8c00a999c7870e1fa47cdd1.pdf
Nouwens, Veerle. “China’s 21st Century Maritime Silk Road: Implications for the UK,” Royal United Services Institute Occasional Paper 2019. https://rusi.org/sites/default/files/20190214_nouwens_maritime_silk_road_web.pdf
Olander, Eric and Cobus van Staden. “2018 China-Africa Year in Review,” The China Africa Project, 2018. https://chinaafricaproject.com/podcast-china-africa-year-in-review/
“Other official flows (OOF),” OECD Data. https://data.oecd.org/drf/other-official-flows-oof.htm
Parker, Sam and Gabrielle Chefitz. “Debtbook Diplomacy: China’s Strategic Leveraging of its Newfound Economic Influence and the Consequences for U.S. Foreign Policy,” The Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center, 2018. https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/files/publication/Debtbook%20Diplomacy%20PDF.pdf
Peterson, Joann and Wen Jin Jean Yuan. “U.S. Trade and Investment with Sub-Saharan Africa: Recent Developments,” United States International Trade Commission, 2018. https://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/pub4780.pdf
“President Xi Jinping Delivers Important Speech and Proposes to Build a Silk Road Economic Belt with Central Asian Countries,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People’s Republic of China. November 7, 2013. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/topics_665678/xjpfwzysiesgjtfhshzzfh_665686/t1076334.shtml
“Profile” China national complete plant import & export Corporation. http://www.complant.com/portalyw/about/gsjj/A060102index_1.htm
Qiu, Winston. “Consortium Signs MOU for PEACE Submarine Cable Project,” Submarine Networks. Last modified October 19, 2017. https://www.submarinenetworks.com/en/systems/asia-europe-africa/peace/consortium-signs-mou-for-peace-submarine-cable-project
“U.S. Relations With China: 1949 – 2019,” Council on Foreign Relations. Last modified May 29, 2019. https://www.cfr.org/timeline/us-relations-china
Rudyak, Marina. “Will China’s new aid agency be effective?” The Interpreter. Last modified April 20, 2018. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/will-china-new-aid-agency-be-effective
Sanusi, Lamido. “Africa must get real about Chinese ties,” The Financial Times. Last modified March 12, 2013. https://www.ft.com/content/562692b0-898c-11e2-ad3f-00144feabdc0
Secretariat of the Chinese Follow-up Committee of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, “Chinese Follow-up Committee of FOCAC,” Secretariat of the Chinese Follow-up Committee of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. https://www.focac.org/eng/ltjj_3/zfhxxdwyh/
Secretariat of the Chinese Follow-up Committee of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. “FOCAC Mechanisms,” Secretariat of the Chinese Follow-up Committee of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. https://www.focac.org/eng/ltjj_3/ltjz/
Shinn, Amb. David H. “China’s Debt Cancellation,” Amb. David H. Shinn Blog, Last modified May 6, 2019. http://davidshinn.blogspot.com/2019/05/chinas-debt-cancellation.html
Shuster, Alvin. “U.S. and Chinese Resume Talks after Two Years” The New York Times. Last modified January 21, 1970. https://www.nytimes.com/1970/01/21/archives/us-and-chinese-resume-talks-after-two-years-talks-resumed-by-us-and.html
Simumba, Joseph. “Zambia’s Bilateral Investment Treaties Review and Evaluation,” ZIPAR Working Paper No. 26, 2017. http://www.zipar.org.zm/research/our-publications/working-papers/57-bilateral-investment-treaties-review-and-evaluation/file
“Smart infrastructure accelerates regional integration, say experts at African Union STC on Energy, Transport and Tourism,” The African Union Commission. Last modified April 16, 2019. https://au.int/en/pressreleases/20190416/smart-infrastructure-accelerates-regional-integration-say-experts-african
Söderberg, Marie. “Changes in Japanese Foreign Aid Policy,” Working Paper 157, 2002. https://swopec.hhs.se/eijswp/papers/eijswp0157.pdf
Songtao, Xu. “China's Public Administration Reform: New Approaches,” Japan/IIAS Joint Panel on Public Administration at Athens, Greece, July 11, 2001. http://www.iam.or.jp/asia-pacific_panel/pdfdownloads/athens01-paper4.pdf
Stevenson, Tom. “Chinese moves spawn a new order,” The Telegraph. Last modified August 23, 2006. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/2945957/Chinese-moves-spawn-a-new-order.htm
Su, Xiaochen. “Why Chinese Infrastructure Loans in Africa Represent a Brand-New Type of Neocolonialism,” The Diplomat. Last modified June 9, 2017. https://thediplomat.com/2017/06/why-chinese-infrastructural-loans-in-africa-represent-a-brand-new-type-of-neocolonialism/
“Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America,” U.S. Department of Defense, 2018. https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf
Sun, Yun, Julius Agbor, and Jessica Smith. “China’s New Leadership and Sino-Africa Relations,” The Brookings Institution. Last modified June, 2016. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Foresight_Sun_2013.pdf.
“The new colonialists,” The Economist. Last modified May 13, 2008. https://www.economist.com/node/10853534.
“The History,” The Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/column/history.shtml
“Trade and External Economic Statistics Division of National Bureau of Statistics,” China Statistical Yearbooks Database, http://tongji.cnki.net/overseas/engnavi/HomePage.aspx?id=N2009100087&name=YDWJJ&floor=1
Trines, Stefan. “New Benefactors? How China and India are Influencing Education in Africa,” World Education News & Reviews (WENR). Last modified April 30, 2019. https://wenr.wes.org/2019/04/how-china-and-india-are-influencing-education-in-africa
Tugendhat, Henry. “Chinese Training Courses for African Officials: A Win-Win Engagement?” SAIS-CARI Policy Brief No. 3, 2014. https://saiscari.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/sais-cari-brief-3-2014-tugendhat.pdf
“United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758,” USC US-China Institute. https://china.usc.edu/sites/default/files/legacy/AppImages/1971-UN-China-seating.pdf
United States Census Bureau. “Trade in Goods with Africa,” U.S. Department of Commerce. Last modified March 13, 2019. https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c0013.html
“UNESCO-China Funds-in-Trust Project ‘Harnessing Technology for Quality Teacher Training in Africa’ Phase I conclusion and Phase II launch meeting,” UNESCO. Last modified March 29, 2017. https://en.unesco.org/events/unesco-china-funds-trust-project-harnessing-technology-quality-teacher-training-africa-phase
Wade, Abdoulaye. “Time for the West to practice what it preaches,” The Financial Times. Last modified January 24, 2008. https://www.ft.com/content/5d347f88-c897-11dc-94a6-0000779fd2ac
Winton, Douglas W. “China’s Economic Statecraft in Africa: Implications for the U.S. Rebalance,” U.S. Army War College, 2013. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a589900.pdf
World Bank. “International Debt Statistics,” The World Bank Debt Data, 2019. https://datatopics.worldbank.org/debt/ids/region/SSA#
“Xi Jinping Chairs and Addresses the Leaders' Roundtable of the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation (BRF),” Belt and Road Forum. Last modified April 28, 2019. http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2019/0429/c22-1392.html
“Xi reaffirms China’s commitment to peaceful development path,” Xinhua. Last modified September 19, 2018. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-09/19/c_137479505.htm
“Xinhua Headlines: Peaceful development, China's steadfast diplomatic path,” Xinhua. Last modified March 9, 2019. http://www.china.org.cn/world/Off_the_Wire/2019-03/09/content_74551536.htm
Xuequan, Mu. “Full text of Chinese President Xi Jinping's speech at opening ceremony of 2018 FOCAC Beijing Summit,” Xinhua. Last modified September 3, 2018. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-09/03/c_137441987.htm
Xun, Sean. “The Mineral Industry of China,” United States Geological Survey. Last modified 2014. https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2014/myb3-2014-ch.pdf
“Zhou Enlai announces eight Principles of foreign aid,” China Daily. Last modified August 13, 2010. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-08/13/content_11149131.htm
Zemin, Jiang. “China and Africa-usher in the new century together,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China, 2004. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/zflt/eng/zyzl/zyjh/t157712.htm
Zhang, Jielin. “African motivation for engagement with China: A case study of Mauritius,” Agenda for International Development. Last modified October 12, 2017. http://www.a-id.org/2017/10/12/african-motivation-for-engagement-with-china-case-study-of-mauritius/
Zhao, Houlin. “China’s One Belt, One Road can improve lives at scale through ICT investment,” ITU News. Last modified May 16, 2017. https://news.itu.int/chinas-one-belt-one-road-can-improve-lives-at-scale-through-ict-investment/
Zhao, Houlin. “Houlin Zhao Secretary-General, ITU speech at Opening Ceremony,” International Telecommunication Union. Last modified September 11, 2018. https://telecomworld.itu.int/speeches/houlin-zhao-secretary-general-itu-speech-at-opening-ceremony/
Zhang, Junyi. “Chinese foreign assistance, explained,” The Brookings Institution. Last modified July 19, 2016. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2016/07/19/chinese-foreign-assistance-explained/
Zhang, Yanbing, Jing Gu and Yunnan Chen. “China’s Engagement in International Development Cooperation: The State of the Debate,” Evidence Report No. 116, 2015. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/5838/ER116_ChinasEngagementinInternationalDevelopmentCooperationTheStateoftheDebate.pdf?sequence=1
Zhou Enlai. “The Chinese Government's Eight Principles for Economic Aid and Technical Assistance to Other Countries,” Wilson Center. Last modified January 15, 1964. https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/121560.pdf
Zhu, Ling. “Hu presents 5-point proposal on Sino-African ties,” Xinhua. Last modified April 27, 2006. http://www.gov.cn/english/2006-04/27/content_268037.htm

Official Documents
China in Africa: The New Colonialism?: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations, 115th Cong., 2st sess., (2018) (statement of Mr. Gordon Chang, China in Africa: The New Colonialism?)
China Statistic Press. “China Statistical Yearbook 2008,” National Bureau of Statistics of China. Last modified March 14, 2019. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2006/indexeh.htm
China Statistic Press. “China Statistical Yearbook 2010,” National Bureau of Statistics of China. Last modified March 14, 2019. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2010/indexeh.htm
China Statistic Press. “China Statistical Yearbook 2012,” National Bureau of Statistics of China. Last modified March 14, 2019. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2012/indexeh.htm?COLLCC=2639788348&
China Statistic Press. “China Statistical Yearbook 2014,” National Bureau of Statistics of China. Last modified March 14, 2019. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2014/indexeh.htm?COLLCC=2632750517&
China Statistic Press. “China Statistical Yearbook 2015,” National Bureau of Statistics of China. Last modified March 14, 2019. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2015/indexeh.htm?COLLCC=2632750517&
China Statistic Press. “China Statistical Yearbook 2016,” National Bureau of Statistics of China. Last modified March 14, 2019. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2016/indexeh.htm
China Statistic Press. “China Statistical Yearbook 2018,” National Bureau of Statistics of China. Last modified March 14, 2019. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2018/indexeh.htm
“Conclusion of the ‘Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance,’” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/ziliao_665539/3602_665543/3604_665547/t18011.shtml
“Constitution of the Communist Party of China,” China.org.cn. Last modified November 14, 2012. http://www.china.org.cn/china/18th_cpc_congress/2012-11/16/content_27138030.htm
“Final Communiqué of the Asian-African conference of Bandung,” Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe. Last modified April 24, 1955. http://franke.uchicago.edu/Final_Communique_Bandung_1955.pdf
“Forum on China–Africa Cooperation Sharm El Sheikh Action Plan (2010–2012),” Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. Last modified November 12, 2009. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/zflt/eng/dsjbzjhy/hywj/t626387.htm
“Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Beijing Action Plan (2007-2009),” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People’s Republic of China. Last modified November 20, 2006. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/zflt/eng/zyzl/hywj/t280369.htm
“Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Johannesburg Action Plan (2016-2018),” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People’s Republic of China. Last modified December 10, 2015. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1323159.shtml
Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. “China’s Foreign Aid (2011),” State Council, 2014. http://english.www.gov.cn/archive/white_paper/2014/09/09/content_281474986284620.htm
Information Office of the State Council. “China’s Peaceful Development,” The State Council. Last modified September 6, 2011. http://english.gov.cn/archive/white_paper/2014/09/09/content_281474986284646.htm
“Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Beijing Action Plan (2019-2021),” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. Last modified September 12, 2018. https://focacsummit.mfa.gov.cn/eng/hyqk_1/t1594297.htm
National Bureau of Statistics of China, “China Statistical Yearbook,” China Statistical Yearbooks Database,http://tongji.cnki.net/overseas/engnavi/HomePage.aspx?id=N2011090108&name=YINFN&floor=1
National Bureau of Statistics of China. “China Statistical Year Book 2013,” National Bureau of Statistics of China. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
“Programme for China-Africa Cooperation in Economic and Social Development,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People’s Republic of China, 2004. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/zflt/eng/zyzl/hywj/t157834.htm
Rongji, Zhu. “Report on the Work of the Government (2000),” The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China. Last modified March 3, 2010. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/Special_11_5/2010-03/03/content_1690619.htm
Rongji, Zhu. “Report on the Outline of the Tenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development,” The State Council of the People’s Republic of China. Last modified March 5, 2001. http://www.gov.cn/english/official/2005-07/29/content_18334.htm
U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Affairs, China in Africa: The New Colonialism? 115th Cong., 2st sess., 2018. https://docs.house.gov/meetings/FA/FA16/20180307/106963/HHRG-115-FA16-Transcript-20180307.pdf
“White Paper: China’s Peaceful Development Road,” The State Council Information Office. Last modified December 22, 2005. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN023152.pdf

Chinese Language
Books
王成安。《中國援助非洲50年概述》。北京,北京大學出版社,2012年。
中共中央文獻研究室。《鄧小平思想年譜》。北京,中央文獻出版社,1998。
石林。《當代中國的對外經濟合作》。北京,中國社會科學出版社,1989。
林德昌。《海峽兩岸援外政策之比較研究》。台北,成文,1999年。
李嵐清。〈關於對外經濟貿易工作落實十四大精神的幾個問題〉。《中國對外經濟貿易年鑒》,北京,中國社會出版社,1933年。
吳克剛。《中共第一女強人一吳儀》。香港,香港文化藝術出版社,2005年。
吳儀。〈機遇與前景:90年代中國對外經貿發展的基本構想〉。《中國商務年鑒》,北京,中華人民共和國商務部,1995年,頁18-25。
張熾鑫。〈貫徹援外新方針,開拓援外新局面〉。《中國對外經濟貿易年鑒(1994~1995年)》,北京,中國社會出版社,1994。

Periodicals
中國進出口銀行。〈中國政府對外優惠貸款簡介〉。《國際經濟合作》,1997年第6期,頁27-28。
孫德剛。〈中國特色的國際合作觀-毛澤東時期中國準聯盟外交戰略探析〉。《國際展望》,2009年第1期,頁28-41。
黃梅波。〈中國政府對外優惠貸款的發展歷程與前景〉。《國際經濟合作》,2010年第11期,頁48-53。
黃梅波,胡建梅。〈中國對外援助管理體系的形成和發展〉。《發展與援助》,2009年第5期,頁32-39。
熊厚。〈中國對外多邊援助的理念與實踐〉。《外交評論》,2010年第 5期,頁49-63。
齊國強。〈在新形勢下進一步改革援外工作──全國援外改革工作會議在京召開〉。《國際經濟合作》,1995年第11期,頁4-5。

Dissertations
張郁慧。〈中國對外援助研究〉。北京,中共中央黨校博士論文,2006。
傅道鹏。〈官方發展援助(ODA)研究〉。北京,財政部財政科學研究所,2003年。

Websites
〈中共中央批轉陳毅、李富春「關於加強對外經濟、技術援助工作領導的請示報告」〉。《人民日報社》,1958年10月25日,http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/64184/64186/66665/4493219.html。
〈中共中央、國務院關於合理安排對外援助的決定〉。《中國文化大革命文庫》,1975年4月23日,https://ccradb.appspot.com/post/800。
〈中國南南合作發展戰略〉。《中國南南合作網》,http://www.ecdc.net.cn/newindex/page/south_index/page_3/file_3/2.htm
中國國際貿易促進委員會經濟資訊部。〈我國“走出去”戰略的形成及推動政策體系分析〉。《中國貿促會“走出去促進計畫”調研資料》,2007年1月,http://aaa.ccpit.org/Category7/Asset/2007/Jul/24/onlineeditimages/file71185259698809.pdf。
王成安。〈用鮮血和生命鑄就友誼之路——紀念援建坦贊鐵路犧牲的中國專家〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,http://history.mofcom.gov.cn/?experience=jnyjtztlxsdzgzj
王勇。〈關於國務院機構改革方案的說明〉。《新華網》,2018年3月4日,http://www.xinhuanet.com/2018-03/14/c_1122533011.htm。
〈中國國際經濟技術交流中心簡介〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,http://cicete.mofcom.gov.cn/article/aboutUs/。
〈中國的對外援助〉。《中華人民共和國國務院新聞辦公室》,2011年4月21日,http://www.scio.gov.cn/m/zxbd/nd/2011/Document/896900/896900.htm。
〈內設機構〉。《商務部西亞非洲司》,2019年5月17日,http://xyf.mofcom.gov.cn/article/gywm/200203/20020300002545.shtml。
〈內設機構〉。《商務部對外援助司》,2015年6月30日, http://yws.mofcom.gov.cn/article/gywm/201506/20150601028591.shtml。
古莉。〈美國使館微博轉哈佛報告介紹債務陷阱〉。《法國國際廣播電台》,http://trad.cn.rfi.fr/auteur/%E5%8F%A4%E8%8E%89/。
〈如何拿到口行的兩優貸款?〉。《商務部電子商務和資訊化司》,2016年10月11日,http://caiec.mofcom.gov.cn/article/g/201610/20161001406979.shtml。
周琪。〈戰後日本援華神話可以休矣〉。《觀察者》,2013年5月20日,https://www.guancha.cn/ZhouZuo/2013_05_20_145743.shtml。
〈重要職能〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,2016年5月25日,http://xyf.mofcom.gov.cn/article/gywm/200203/20020300002546.shtml。
〈重要職能〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,2015年5月8日,http://yws.mofcom.gov.cn/article/gywm/200203/20020300003746.shtml。
張勉勵。〈中國對外經濟技術援助調整與改革述論〉。《中華人民共和國國史網》,2015年11月18日,http://www.hprc.org.cn/gsyj/yjjg/zggsyjxh_1/gsnhlw_1/baguoshixslwj/201110/t20111018_4004376_2.html。
張勉勵。〈試析中國援外改革發展的歷史階段及其特徵〉。《中國社會科學院當代中國研究所》,2018年11月25日,http://www.hprc.org.cn/gsyj/wjs/gjyz/201901/t20190129_4819644.html。
程章璽。〈中國為何要專門設立這個通常發達國家才有的機構?〉。《瞭望智庫》,2018年4月19日,http://www.lwinst.com/zhengzhi/6543.htm。
彭波。〈新中國建立後的對外援助〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,http://history.mofcom.gov.cn/?newchina=e%E6%96%B0%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E5%BB%BA%E7%AB%8B%E5%90%8E%E7%9A%84%E5%AF%B9%E5%A4%96%E6%8F%B4%E5%8A%A9
彭波。〈萬隆會議以後中國的對外援助〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,http://history.mofcom.gov.cn/?newchina=%E4%B8%87%E9%9A%86%E4%BC%9A%E8%AE%AE%E4%BB%A5%E5%90%8E%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E7%9A%84%E5%AF%B9%E5%A4%96%E6%8F%B4%E5%8A%A9
〈機構簡介〉。《商務部電子商務和資訊化司》,2016年8月9日,http://jjhzj.mofcom.gov.cn/article/guanywm/201608/20160801375907.shtml。
〈國際和地區組織〉。《中華人民共和國外交部》,https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/web/gjhdq_676201/gjhdqzz_681964/
〈對外經濟貿易部關於我部改革援外管理體制的通知〉。《正保法律教育網》,1993年3月17日, http://www.chinalawedu.com/falvfagui/fg22016/6530.shtml。
〈對外經濟聯絡部〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,2005年1月31日, http://bgt.mofcom.gov.cn/aarticle/Nocategory/200501/20050100016087.html。
〈學院職責〉。《中華人民共和國商務部國際商務官員研修學院》,2016年9月24日, http://www.china-aibo.cn/class/view?id=9。
〈發展歷程〉。《中國成套設備進出口集團有限公司》,http://www.complant.com/portal/about/fzlc/A090105index_1.htm。

Official Documents
中國進出口銀行。《中國進出口銀行年度報告》。北京,中國進出口銀行,2009年。
朱鎔基。〈關於制定國民經濟和社會發展第十個五年計劃建議的說明〉。《中國政府網》,2000年10月9日,http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2000/content_60547.htm。
李鵬。〈政府工作報告〉。《中國政府網》,1993年3月15日,http://www.gov.cn/test/2008-04/15/content_945114.htm。
周恩來。〈1964年國務院政府工作報告〉。《中國政府網》,1964年12月21日,http://www.gov.cn/test/2006-02/23/content_208787.htm。
〈商務大事記1995年〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,http://history.mofcom.gov.cn/?newchina=%E5%95%86%E5%8A%A1%E5%A4%A7%E4%BA%8B%E8%AE%B01995%E5%B9%B4。
〈對外援助管理辦法(試行)》。《中華人民共和國商務部》,2015年6月26日,http://tfs.mofcom.gov.cn/article/ghlt/a/201506/20150601024062.shtml。
駐尼日利亞使館經商參處。〈2017年我與非洲全年貿易數據〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,2019年,http://africanunion.mofcom.gov.cn/article/jmxw/201801/20180102703211.shtml。
駐非盟使團經濟商務處。〈2018年全年我與非洲貿易資料〉。《中華人民共和國商務部》,2019,http://africanunion.mofcom.gov.cn/article/jmxw/201901/20190102830225.shtml。

(此全文20211004後開放瀏覽)
電子全文
 
 
 
 
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
* *